Historians disagree about the invention of the bicycle, and many dates are challenged. It is most likely that no individual qualifies as the inventor and that the bicycle evolved through the efforts of many. Although Leonardo da Vinci was credited with having sketched a bicycle in 1492 in his Codex Atlanticus, the drawing was discovered to be a forgery added in the 1960s. Another presumed bicycle ancestor, the vélocifère, or célérifère, of the 1790s was a fast horse-drawn coach that is not considered to be a predecessor of the bicycle.
Draisiennes, hobby-horses, and other velocipedes
The first two-wheeled rider-propelled machine for which there is indisputable evidence was the draisienne, invented by Baron Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun of Germany. In 1817 he rode it for 14 km (9 miles), and the following year he exhibited it in Paris. Although von Drais called his device a Laufmaschine (“running machine”), draisienne and velocipede became more popular names. The machine was made of wood, and the seated rider propelled himself by paddling his feet against the ground. A balance board supported the rider’s arms. Although von Drais was granted patents, copies were soon being produced in other countries, including Great Britain, Austria, Italy, and the United States.
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Denis Johnson of London purchased a draisienne and patented an improved model in 1818 as the “pedestrian curricle.” The following year he produced more than 300, and they became commonly known as hobby-horses. They were very expensive, and many buyers were members of the nobility. Caricaturists called the devices “dandy horses,” and riders were sometimes jeered in public. The design raised health concerns, and riding proved impractical except on smooth roads. Johnson’s production ended after only six months. The brief draisienne–hobby-horse fad did not lead to sustained development of two-wheeled vehicles, but von Drais and Johnson established that the machines could remain balanced while in motion. For the next 40 years, most experimenters focused on human-powered three- and four-wheeled velocipedes.
Treadles and pedals: powered velocipedes
There is evidence that a small number of two-wheeled machines with rear treadle drives were built in southwestern Scotland during the early 1840s. Kirkpatrick Macmillan, a blacksmith of Dumfriesshire, is most often associated with these. He is said to have traveled 40 miles (64 km) to Glasgow in 1842, although documentation is problematic. Gavin Dalzell of Lesmahagow probably built a similar two-wheeled machine in the mid-1840s and is said to have operated it for many years. This may be the heavily restored machine in the Glasgow Museum of Transport. It has wooden wheels and iron rims. The rider’s feet swung treadles back and forth, moving a pair of rods connected to cranks on the rear wheels. Thomas McCall, another Scotsman, built similar machines in the late 1860s. Documents indicate that Alexandre Lefèbvre of Saint-Denis, France, built a two-wheeled velocipede powered by treadles connected to cranks on the rear wheel
There are various applications
that can be used to define vehicular demand for SUMO. Of course it is
also possible to define the demand file manually or to edit generated
files with a text editor. Before starting, it is important to know that
a vehicle in SUMO consists of three parts:
a vehicle type which describes the vehicle’s physical properties,
a route the vehicle shall take,
and the vehicle itself.
Both routes and vehicle types can be shared by several vehicles. It is
not mandatory to define a vehicle type. If not given, a default type is
used. The driver of a vehicle does not have to be modelled explicitly.
For the simulation of persons which walk around or ride in vehicles, additional definitions are necessary.
Initially, we will define a vehicle with a route owned by him only:
By giving such a route definition to SUMO (or
SUMO-GUI), SUMO will build a
red (color=1,0,0) vehicle of type “type1” named “0” which starts at time
0. The vehicle will drive along the streets “beg”, “middle”, “end”, and
as soon as it has approached the edge “rend” it will be removed from the
This vehicle has its own internal route which is not shared with other
vehicles. It is also possible to define two vehicles using the same
route. In this case the route must be “externalized” – defined before
being referenced by the vehicles. Also, the route must be named by
giving it an id. The vehicles using the route refer it using the
“route”-attribute. The complete change looks like this:
Modes of transport or types of transportation referto a combination of networks, infrastructures, vehicles and operations. These include walking, the road transport system, rail, ship transport and modern aviation. Different modes of transportation have emerged over time, basically there are five (5) modes of transportation which are listed below.
Modes of Transport
Different modes of transport (types of transportation)
Road transport: road transport exist in all parts of the world, this involves the use of motor vehicles (cars, lorries, buses, bicycles, and trucks). There are various types of roads according to size and functions, some roads are tarred while others are not. The best of these roads are the modern roads which links major towns. Road transport when compared with other modes of transportation is more flexible. It is relatively cheaper and faster. Road transport has a high capacity of carrying goods over short distances. Maintenance is one of the major disadvantages of this mode of transport.
Railway transport: railways were developed during the period of industrial revolution in the 19th century, these was partly for political reasons and for economic reasons. In many countries, they were built especially to penetrate isolated regions and help promote political unity. The major advantage of railway transport includes provision reliable services. It has ability of conveying heavy and bulky goods; it is also very cheap, safe and comfortable for passengers over a long distance.
Water transport: water transport is very important because it is the cheapest way of transporting bulky goods over a long distance. In the world, there are two major types of water transport namely:Inland water transport and ocean water transport. Inland water transport:this is the system of transport through all navigable rivers, lakes and man-made canals. Many large rivers in different parts of the world are used by ships and barges for transportation; the main rivers where inland water transport are important are the Rhine and Dambe in Europe, the Zaire in Africa, the Nile in Africa, the Mississippi in USA etc. However, Ocean waterways carry a lot of the world’strade, majority of the bulky goods, materials and passengers pass through ocean waterways from one country to another at the cheapest cost.
Air transport:air transport is the newest means of transport; it was introduced in 1903 but developed into full means of transporting people and goods in 1930s. The greatest of the air transportation started after the Second World War (WW11). This mode of transportation can be used for both domestic and international flights.
Pipeline transport:this system of transportation involves the use of hollow pipes in the transportation of water, crude oil, (petroleum) and gas. This mode of transportation is safer than using tankers or trailers in the transportation of these liquids.
Other modes of transportation include
Animal-powered transport:which is mostly referred to as beast of burden. It is the oldest means of transportation; this usually involves the use of animals for
Launch vehicle, in spaceflight, a rocket-powered vehicle used to transport a spacecraft beyond Earth’s atmosphere, either into orbit around Earth or to some other destination in outer space. Practical launch vehicles have been used to send crewed spacecraft, uncrewed space probes, and satellites into space since the 1950s. They include the Soyuz and Proton launchers of Russia as well as several converted military missiles; Russia is developing a new family of launchers called Angara. Europe operates the Ariane V and Vega launchers. The United States operated the space shuttle until its retirement in 2011. Current U.S. launch vehicles include the Atlas, Delta, Falcon, and Antares expendable boosters.
In order to reach Earth orbit, a launch vehicle must accelerate its spacecraft payload to a minimum velocity of 28,000 km (17,500 miles) per hour, which is roughly 25 times the speed of sound. To overcome Earth’s gravity for travel to a destination such as the Moon or Mars, the spacecraft must be accelerated to a velocity of approximately 40,000 km (25,000 miles) per hour. The initial acceleration must also be provided very rapidly in order to minimize both the time that a launch vehicle takes to transit the stressful environment of the atmosphere and the time during which the vehicle’s rocket engines and other systems must operate near their performance limits; a launch from Earth’s surface or atmosphere usually attains orbital velocity within 8–12 minutes. Such rapid acceleration requires one or more rocket engines burning large quantities of propellant at a high rate, while at the same time the vehicle is controlled so that it follows its planned trajectory. To maximize the mass of the spacecraft that a particular launch vehicle can carry, the vehicle’s structural weight is kept as low as possible. Most of the weight of the launch vehicle is actually its propellants—i.e., fuel and the oxidizer needed to burn the fuel. Designing reliable launch vehicles is challenging. The launchers with the best recent records have a reliability rate between 95 and 99 percent.
With the exception of the partially reusable U.S. space shuttle and the Soviet Buran vehicle (which was flown only once), all launch vehicles to date have been designed for only a single use; they are thus called expendable launch vehicles. With costs ranging from more than 10 million dollars each for the smaller launch vehicles used to put lighter payloads into orbit to hundreds of millions of dollars for the launchers needed for the heaviest payloads, access to space is very expensive, on the order of many thousands of dollars per kilogram taken to orbit. The complexity of the space shuttle made it extremely expensive to operate, even though portions of the shuttle system were reusable. Attempts to develop a fully reusable launch vehicle in order to reduce the cost of access to space have so far not been successful, primarily because the
Transportation in the early 1800s was primarily by horse and sail, but the development and refinement of the steam engine spurred the development of rail and river transportation. Horses and horse-drawn conveyances remained the primary method of transportation through most of the century, at least for local travel. Toward the end of the 1800s, the automobile came into existence, although most 19th-century designs saw very limited adoption.
Before the widespread use of the steam engine, travel by water had to take advantage of wind, currents or manpower for propulsion. Much of the river travel in this period was one-way, as a keelboat or raft could transport goods downstream easily, but upstream travel was arduous. When goods needed to travel against the current of a river, they typically traveled over land. Steamboats allowed vessels to travel against the current, creating the first two-way river-transportation systems.
Railroads proved to be an important transportation innovation in the 1800s, due to their ability to transport large quantities of people and goods at relatively high speeds. Rail travel has the advantage of working year-round, where boat travel can be difficult in northern climes during the winter. Railroads also served as a communication lifeline, as telegraph wires often accompanied railroad tracks as they spread across the country.
Transportation or commonly transport is a kind of system wherein different means are provided for the people to travel or move from one place to another conveniently. Transportation is not confined to any single mean rather there are so many different types of transportation which are necessary to keep the day to day tasks on track. For instance, we need to have open, unobstructed roadways to reach our destinations on time; airplanes are used to get to the far off destinations to conduct business deals or just to spend vacations. Similarly, subways and public transportation are extremely important to carry out city operations. School buses, trucks, barges and rails all have an important role to play in performing our daily chores or tasks.
History of Transportation
It was in 3500 BC when the first wheel was invented. It was a great milestone in the beginning of transportation. In early stages, the wheels were used on carts and then later on chariots. After this invention, the next to follow was the riverboats which were believed to be used by Egyptians for the very first time. In past, horses were also the essential mean of transportation and it is said that the Asians were the first to use protector on horses’ hooves. Wheelbarrows were another important breakthrough in moving heavy objects from one place to another. Cornelis Drebbel was the first to invent the submarine to travel under the water in 1620. With the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the world experienced the very first paddle wheel steamboat in 1700s. Since then, we have seen a lot of inventions in this regard. For instance, we saw cable car and later in 1903, the Wright Brothers invented the first airplane given the name ‘flying machine’. Wright Brothers also possess the title for inventing bicycles. Few years later, Henry Ford invented the cars in 1908. Similarly, 1940s is regarded as the decade when world saw first helicopter flight. Jumbo jets were introduced in 1970 and the major invention which the world experienced in 1981 was the Space Shuttle.
Following are given some of the different types of transportation:
Interstate Highway System
Interstate highways are historical parts of United States’ transportation system. Officially, this is referred to as National Highway System that comprises of about 160,000 miles of smoothly paved roads and interstates which aim at keeping the inhabitants mobile, and so on. Formally, the National Highway System is separated into different key groups given below:
Interstates: The present system of interstate highways in the United States is officially referred to as Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highway. It was in 1944 when the Congress passed a bill in a view to create over 40,000 miles of roadway. President Eisenhower was the active member in raising fund for the roadways. All the roadways based on standard markers such as red, white and blue shield. The odd number roadways travel from north to south whilst the even numbers from east to west.
Historically, societies have always located near water, due partly to the
fact that water enables more efficient travel compared to going over land.
Waterways are critically important to the transportation of people and
goods throughout the world. The complex network of connections between
coastal ports, inland ports, rail, air, and truck routes forms a
foundation of material economic wealth worldwide.
Within the United States, waterways have been developed and integrated
into a world-class transportation system that has been instrumental in the
country’s economic development. Today, there are more than 17,700
kilometers of commercially important navigation channels in the lower 48
Early History of Water-based Transportation
The historical development of water-based transportation is connected to
the importance of domestic and international trade. Early exploration of
North America identified large amounts of natural resources such as
fisheries, timber, and furs. Trade centers were established along the
east coast of North America where goods could be gathered together and
ocean vessels could transport them to consumers in Europe and other
foreign areas. The success of commercial trading companies spurred the
Waterways in developing countries are critical avenues for local
and regional commerce. Fruit and vegetable vendors flock to floating
markets on rivers and canals, such as this one in Bangkok, Thailand.
more colonial settlements that in turn resulted in additional increases
in population, economic activity, and trade.
From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, small subsistence farms
were prevalent among the American colonies. Eventually larger farms
emerged and produced crops such as wheat, tobacco, rice, indigo, and
cotton that were commercially marketable in Europe. Ocean vessels
transported the bulk, low-value goods from the colonies to Europe and
returned with high-value, low-density goods such as inks, linens, and
finished products that had a much higher return on the investment per
Agricultural production continued to grow and support the growing
colonies’ economic development. The speed and low cost of
transporting goods by water influenced the locations of population
settlements near navigable water (rivers, lakes, canals, and oceans).
Goods produced on inland farms were transported via inland waterways to
the coastal ports. Goods shipped by smaller vessels from surrounding
ports were transported to New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, and
exported on larger oceangoing ships. These ships from the smaller ports
then transported imported goods back to the surrounding ports.
During the 1700s, the British government passed many acts, such as the
Navigation Acts and the Stamp Act of 1765, designed to collect taxes
from the colonists. The acts affected trade, and were met with
opposition from the colonist. In Philadelphia during the fall of 1774,
the “Declarations and Resolves of the First Continental
Congress” called for non-importation of British goods, and became
a catalyst for the American Revolutionary War (1775–1784). The
resulting independence for the United States allowed trade a free rein,
and it flourished.
The westward expansion of the United States exposed a wealth of natural
resources and an increased production in agricultural goods. The inland
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