Written on Apr, 29, 2020by iwano@_84 | No Comments
Using public transportation like the subway, a train, or bus can make it difficult to social distance or avoid touching shared surfaces.
Due to subway line closures and fewer people on the subway, it may be easier to maintain distance between yourself and other passengers.
However, crowded subway cars, trains, and buses can quickly become a hotbed of contaminants due to high foot traffic and riders touching, sneezing, or coughing on shared surfaces.
In order to attempt to curb this, the MTA in New York City has modified its schedules for the Long Island Rail Road and the Metro-North Railroad, and strategically planned its subway line service during “peak” travel times.
“I understand people are trying to get somewhere, but no one should be getting on a crowded train,” Mayor Bill de Blasio told local station NY1. “Spread out throughout the train, [or] wait for the next train.”
If you do have to travel using public transportation, be sure to wear some sort of face covering, use the least-crowded bus or subway car as possible, avoid touching shared surfaces, sanitize your area if possible, and don’t bring your hands close to your face. Travelers should also use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or wash their hands after exiting the bus or train.
The CDC also recommends that instead of touching shared surfaces with bare hands, travelers should use a disposable tissue or even a sleeve to cover their hands or finger if they must touch something while traveling.
Written on Apr, 17, 2020by iwano@_84 | No Comments
Modes of transport or types of transportation referto a combination of networks, infrastructures, vehicles and operations. These include walking, the road transport system, rail, ship transport and modern aviation. Different modes of transportation have emerged over time, basically there are five (5) modes of transportation which are listed below.
Modes of Transport
Different modes of transport (types of transportation)
Road transport: road transport exist in all parts of the world, this involves the use of motor vehicles (cars, lorries, buses, bicycles, and trucks). There are various types of roads according to size and functions, some roads are tarred while others are not. The best of these roads are the modern roads which links major towns. Road transport when compared with other modes of transportation is more flexible. It is relatively cheaper and faster. Road transport has a high capacity of carrying goods over short distances. Maintenance is one of the major disadvantages of this mode of transport.
Railway transport: railways were developed during the period of industrial revolution in the 19th century, these was partly for political reasons and for economic reasons. In many countries, they were built especially to penetrate isolated regions and help promote political unity. The major advantage of railway transport includes provision reliable services. It has ability of conveying heavy and bulky goods; it is also very cheap, safe and comfortable for passengers over a long distance.
Water transport: water transport is very important because it is the cheapest way of transporting bulky goods over a long distance. In the world, there are two major types of water transport namely:Inland water transport and ocean water transport. Inland water transport:this is the system of transport through all navigable rivers, lakes and man-made canals. Many large rivers in different parts of the world are used by ships and barges for transportation; the main rivers where inland water transport are important are the Rhine and Dambe in Europe, the Zaire in Africa, the Nile in Africa, the Mississippi in USA etc. However, Ocean waterways carry a lot of the world’strade, majority of the bulky goods, materials and passengers pass through ocean waterways from one country to another at the cheapest cost.
Air transport:air transport is the newest means of transport; it was introduced in 1903 but developed into full means of transporting people and goods in 1930s. The greatest of the air transportation started after the Second World War (WW11). This mode of transportation can be used for both domestic and international flights.
Pipeline transport:this system of transportation involves the use of hollow pipes in the transportation of water, crude oil, (petroleum) and gas. This mode of transportation is safer than using tankers or trailers in the transportation of these liquids.
Other modes of transportation include
Animal-powered transport:which is mostly referred to as beast of burden. It is the oldest means of transportation; this usually involves the use of animals for
Written on Mar, 30, 2020by iwano@_84 | No Comments
Author: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
Transport modes are the means by which passengers and freight achieve mobility. They are mobile transport assets and fall into three basic types; land (road, rail and pipelines), water (shipping), and air.
Transport modes are designed to either carry passengers or freight, but most modes can carry a combination of both. For instance, an automobile has a capacity to carry some freight while a passenger plane has a bellyhold that is used for luggage and cargo. Each mode is characterized by a set of technical, operational and commercial characteristics. Technical characteristics relate to attributes such as speed, capacity, and motive technology while operational characteristics involve the context in which modes operated, including speed limits, safety conditions or operating hours. The demand for transport and the ownership of modes are dominant commercial characteristics.
a. Road transportation
Road infrastructures are large consumers of space with the lowest level of physical constraints among transportation modes. However, physiographical constraints are significant in road construction with substantial additional costs to overcome features such as rivers or rugged terrain. While historically road transportation was developed to support non-motorized forms of transportation (walking, domestic animals and cycling at the end of the 19th century), it is motorization that has shaped the most its development since the beginning of the 20th century.
Road transportation has an average operational flexibility as vehicles can serve several purposes but are rarely able to operate outside roads. Road transport systems have high maintenance costs, both for the vehicles and infrastructures. They are mainly linked to light industries and freight distribution where rapid movements of freight in small batches are the norm. Yet, with containerization, road transportation has become a crucial link in freight distribution.
b. Rail transportation and pipelines
Railways are composed of a traced path on which wheeled vehicles are bound. In light of recent technological developments, rail transportation also includes monorails and maglev. They have an average level of physical constraints and a low gradient is required, particularly for freight. Heavy industries are traditionally linked with rail transport systems, although containerization has improved the flexibility of rail transportation by linking it with road and maritime modes. Rail is by far the land transportation mode offering the highest capacity with a 23,000 tons fully loaded coal unit train being the heaviest load ever carried. Gauges, however, vary around the world, often challenging the integration of rail systems.
Pipeline routes are practically unlimited as they can be laid on land or underwater. Their purpose is to move liquids such as petroleum products over long distances in a cost-effective fashion. The longest gas pipeline links Alberta to Sarnia (Canada), which is 2,911 km in length. The longest oil pipeline is the Transiberian, extending over 9,344 km from the Russian arctic oilfields in eastern Siberia to Western Europe. Physical constraints are low and include the landscape and pergelisol in