Bicycle Health is a treatment organization that specializes in the care of clients struggling with opioid use disorders. With nine locations from Los Angeles to San Francisco, Bicycle Health offers comprehensive medication-assisted treatment that integrates counseling with medications to treat opioids such as heroin, Fentanyl and Vicodin. Founded in 2018, the organization offers “telemedicine”, where modern technology enables physician consultations through video conferencing. Beyond the intake interview, individuals do not need to meet with team members in-person. Medication management is offered for clients in need of dual-diagnosis support for co-occurring physical and mental health conditions. The 12-step recovery model is also a component of the programming.
Treatment and Staff
Before beginning treatment clients undergo a comprehensive intake assessment that includes a physical and mental health exam as well as a complete history of substance use and withdrawal symptoms. From there, the Bicycle Health team determines the most effective individualized care strategy tailored to address the specific needs and goals of each client. The facility utilizes Suboxone and Subutex, FDA-approved medications that reduce painful opioid withdrawal symptoms and enable individuals to focus on recovery. In addition, Bicycle Health uses muscle relaxant medications when necessary. Methadone is not offered as it requires in-person visits. Clients can communicate with a physician or health coach through Bicycle Health’s app. There is no set treatment length. Individual needs dictate how long a client will require medication.
Bicycle Health employs an established team comprised of board-certified physicians, family and psychiatric nurse practitioners as well as health coaches. Many of the doctors specialize in preventative and family medicine. Medication management for co-occurring conditions is available as needed.
Following the intake assessment, clients are no longer required to show up in-person. Prescriptions can be picked up personally, sent to a nearby pharmacy or even discreetly delivered to the client’s home.
The Modesto location accepts Medicare.
Bicycle Health is an organization that offers a comprehensive “telemedical” approach to care that remotely connects physicians with clients struggling with opioid use disorders. The facility places a premium on privacy and professional, individualized care. For anyone seeking a discrete medication-assisted program with an excellent team of physicians and nurses, Bicycle Health is an excellent resource.
Bicycle Health Location
San Francisco 350 Townsend St, Ste 309 San Francisco, CA, 94107.
Redwood City 617 Veterans Blvd Ste 101, Redwood City, CA, 94063.
Modesto 931 10th St, Modesto, CA 95354.
Fresno 2721 Ventura St Ste 130 Fresno, CA, 93721.
Pasadena 547 South Marengo Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91101
Culver City 9415 Culver Blvd, Culver City, CA 90232
Santa Monica 929 Colorado Ave, Santa Monica, CA 90401
Long Beach 431 E Broadway, Long Beach, CA 90802
San Fernando Valley 9410 Owensmouth Ave, Chatsworth, CA 91311
Bicycle Health Cost
$199/Month (Insurance accepted). Reach Bicycle Health by phone at (866) 400-1559 or byemail. Follow Bicycle Health on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.
Access to transportation to transverse the large distances between residences and health services in rural settings is a necessity. However, little research has examined directly access to transportation in analyses of rural health care utilization.
This analysis addresses the association of transportation and health care utilization in a rural region.
Using survey data from a sample of 1,059 households located in 12 western North Carolina counties, this analysis tests the relationship of different transportation measures to health care utilization while adjusting for the effects of personal characteristics, health characteristics, and distance.
Those who had a driver’s license had 2.29 times more health care visits for chronic care and 1.92 times more visits for regular checkup care than those who did not. Respondents who had family or friends who could provide transportation had 1.58 times more visits for chronic care than those who did not. While not significant in the multivariate analysis, the small number who used public transportation had 4 more chronic care visits per year than those who did not. Age and lower health status were also associated with increased health care visits. The transportation variables that were significantly associated with health care visits suggest that the underlying conceptual frameworks, the Health Behavior Model and Hagerstrand’s time geography, are useful for understanding transportation behavior.
Further research must address the transportation behavior related to health care and the factors that influence this behavior. This information will inform policy alternatives to address geographic barriers to health care in rural communities.
N = 413 adults Urban (Dayton, Ohio), low SES 71 % female, 48 % Black, 42 % Appalachian
Door to door survey on barriers to health care access
“Difficulty finding transportation” (1)
“Hard” or “very hard” time finding transportation (31 %)
Arcury et al. 
N = 1,059 adults Rural (North Carolina), mixed SES, 662 female, 948 Whites, 112 Blacks
Retrospective, comparing transportation barriers and health care utilization
“Distance to care for… regular visit… for less serious emergency… for serious emergency” (3) Has a driver’s license, any household member has a driver’s license, number of vehicles owned in household, days per week spent driving, relative or friend who regularly provides transportation for a family member, knowledge of organizations that provided transportation to health care and use of such transportation (7)
Health care utilization associated with having a driver’s license (OR 2.29 more visits) and having a friend or relative who provides transportation (OR 1.58 more visits)
Blazer et al. 
N = 4,162 adults, age 65 + Rural/Urban North Carolina), mixed SES, 62 % female, 68 % Non-Black (majority White)
Retrospective cross-sectional survey (1986/87) analyzed for urban/rural variation of health service use, satisfaction, barriers to care
Do you put off or neglect going to the doctor because of “distance or transportation”? (1)
No difference between urban and rural residents in health service use; 7.7 % delayed care due to distance or transportation
Borders et al. 
N = 2,097 adults, age 65 + Rural (West Texas), mixed SES 71 % female, 1949 Non-Hispanic, 148 Hispanic
Telephone survey on barriers to health care access
“Always/usually get transportation to doctor’s office” (1)
Non- Hispanics (96 %) vs. Hispanics (90 %) could usually get transportation to clinic
Branch et al. 
N = 776 adults, age 65 + Massachusetts, 95 % Medicare, 17 % Medicaid, 61 % privately insured, 64 % female Race not reported
Retrospective survey interviews on barriers to health care access
“You did not have a way to travel to the doctor” (1)
Not having a way to get to the doctor (3 %); travel difficulties associated with lower income, being female, living alone, having less education
Call et al. b
N = 1,853 Minnesota Health Care Plan adult and parent enrollees Minnesota, 65 % female adult enrollees, 47 % female parent enrollees, 1,314 Whites, 539 American Indians
Mailed survey on barriers to health care access
“Difficulties with transportation” (1)
American Indians (39 %) vs. Whites (18 %) have difficulties with transportation
Canupp et al. 
N = 163 adults, mean age 26 with spinal cord injuries Birmingham, Alabama, 25 % had income greater than 25,000 dollars, 14 % female, 63 % white
Face to face survey on barriers to follow- up appointments
Obstacles for follow-up included distance to travel and availability of transportation (2)
Non-compliance with appointments associated with distance to travel (P = 0.004) and availability of transportation (P = 0.033)
VA recognizes Veterans who are visually impaired, elderly, or immobilized due to disease or disability, and particularly those living in remote and rural areas face challenges traveling to their VA health care appointments. Veterans Transportation Service (VTS) is working to establish Mobility Managers at each local VA facility to help Veterans meet their transportation needs.
VTS has established a network of transportation options for Veterans through joint efforts with VA’s Office of Rural Health and organizations, such as Veterans Service Organizations (VSOs); community transportation providers; federal, state and local government transportation agencies; non-profits and Veterans Transportation Community Living Initiative (VTCLI) grantees.
How to Apply
Veterans who are eligible for VA health care benefits and have a VA-authorized appointment are eligible for transportation through the VTS program based on the availability and guidelines in place at their local facility. Each local VA authorized facility has ridership guidelines based on their capabilities.
Participating VA medical centers (VAMCs) offer VTS to assist Veterans in accessing transportation to VA medical facilities or authorized non-VA appointments to receive the care they have earned. Find a VTS office near you.
Transportation barriers are often cited as barriers to healthcare access. Transportation barriers lead to rescheduled or missed appointments, delayed care, and missed or delayed medication use. These consequences may lead to poorer management of chronic illness and thus poorer health outcomes. However, the significance of these barriers is uncertain based on existing literature due to wide variability in both study populations and transportation barrier measures. The authors sought to synthesize the literature on the prevalence of transportation barriers to health care access. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed studies on transportation barriers to healthcare access was performed. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) study addressed access barriers for ongoing primary care or chronic disease care; (2) study included assessment of transportation barriers; and (3) study was completed in the United States. In total, 61 studies were reviewed. Overall, the evidence supports that transportation barriers are an important barrier to healthcare access, particularly for those with lower incomes or the under/uninsured. Additional research needs to (1) clarify which aspects of transportation limit health care access (2) measure the impact of transportation barriers on clinically meaningful outcomes and (3) measure the impact of transportation barrier interventions and transportation policy changes.
As the coronavirus crisis forces changes in transportation, some cities are building bike lanes and protecting cycling shops. Here’s why that makes sense.
Speaking in Parliament in London earlier this year, Chris Boardman, the former Olympian cyclist and the walking and cycling commissioner of Manchester, said: “Pick a crisis, and you’ll probably find cycling is a solution.”
He was talking about climate, health and air pollution, but he also might as well have been talking about coronavirus.
As Covid-19 rages, almost half of the world’s population is under some form of restricted movement. In a bid to slow the spread of coronavirus, people must stay home, aside from strictly limited essential trips for food and medicine and a daily outing for exercise. We all need to comply with restrictions to bring this life-threatening virus under control. I believe the best way to keep a safe distance from others when we do move is by walking, and cycling.
Many experts view cycling as a safe way to avoid crowded public transportation systems — and the citizens in a number of world cities appear to agree. In New York, cycling spiked by 52% over the city’s bridges after social-distancing protocols were put in place. In Chicago, bikeshare use doubled in early March. In Dublin and London, advocates are offering support to new riders who are taking to the streets in droves.
Cycling can help communities in “food deserts” access shops that are farther than a walk away. It speeds the delivery of food and medicine for households without a car, or those who are quarantined at home. And it helps people avoid car trips, cutting air pollution and freeing up public transit for those who absolutely need it.
To protect people doing essential trips — including medical staff, who need to get to work — networks of emergency cycleways could be built quickly and cheaply, using easy-to-install temporary bollards and wands, as the city of Seville once did. Low-traffic neighborhoods can connect those routes, stopping shortcutting drivers using residential streets with low-tech planters and bollards, while allowing residents in and out by bike. During the crisis, and as society recovers, this network could keep residents active and healthy, where local restrictions permit. It would also be free to use — more valuable than ever amid a global economic disruption. Once we reach the other side, communities could decide whether to keep the new infrastructure or not.
This is hardly the first time that cities have used cycling as an emergency transportation solution. The usefulness of bicycles in disaster recovery was demonstrated anew after severe earthquakes in Mexico City in 2017 and Tokyo in 2011. A broader global crisis — the 1973 OPEC oil embargo — offered another opportunity for bicycles to step up. That shock to the gasoline supply dealt a severe blow to daily life in the U.S. and many car-dependent Western European nations. But in
Transportation decisions that take place upstream affect our lives downstream. We all use various ways to get to work or school, to access healthy foods and to do countless other things every day. Yet poor transportation decisions can harm health and are not always fair across all communities.
For example, communities near a highway or major roadway are often low-income and communities of color. Living near a highway or major roadway increases a person’s exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Traffic-related air pollution is linked to respiratory conditions like wheezing and decreased lung functioning and also cardiovascular disease. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution is linked to childhood asthma.
APHA speaks out for transportation policy that improves, rather than hinders, public health. We believe in working with the transportation sector to create equitable and healthy transportation policies.
Check out our two latest Transportation and Health Stories from the Field showing how transportation and health agencies collaborate together to support active living for everyone:
Planning with a Public Health Focus- Connecting the Dots in the East Central Region of Wisconsin (PDF) — Learn how the East Central Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission works with public health departments and nonprofit partners to identify shared values to support active living and integrate public health into transportation plans.
Minnesota Health and Transportation- Partners for Change (PDF) — Learn how Minnesota Department of Transportation and Department of Health have partnered together over the years to advance health equity through such initiatives as health impact assessments and Minnesota Walks, one of the first statewide pedestrian planning frameworks in the country that recognizes health and walking as transportation planning priorities.
Building Healthy and Prosperous Communities: How Metro Areas are Building More and Better Bicycling and Walking Projects
Over the last two years, Transportation for America, in conjunction with the APHA, worked with metropolitan planning organizations across the country to collect and document stories about how they are planning, funding, and building more and better walking and bicycling projects. Check out the guidebook Building Healthy and Prosperous Communities: How Metro Areas are Building More and Better Bicycling and Walking Projects.
Working with Metropolitan Planning Organizations
Ever wondered what a Metropolitan Planning Organization was and how to work with one? Check out our latest guide (PDF) outlining the core responsibilities of an MPO and how to partner with them to advance healthy communities.
If you are interested in learning more about past work highlighting MPO efforts, check out this set of case studies and policy paper authored by Transportation for America, with support from APHA.
Transportation and Health Tool Case Studies
APHA recently released five case studies that provide valuable insight into opportunities to advance health on both state and regional levels. The case studies feature organizations using the Transportation and Health Tool indicators to:
Want to learn more about the Transportation and Health Tool? Read an article in the Journal of Transport & Health about the Transportation and Health Tool. You can also listen to the Incorporating Health