August 01, 2021
11 11 11 AM
Biden wants U.S automakers to pledge 40% electric vehicles by 2030 -sources
N.Y.’s Transit System Could Receive $10 Billion in Infrastructure Deal
2022 Subaru BRZ Starts Just Under $29,000
Review: The best bicycle tyre inflators to use with an air compressor
Ex-Toyota Europe CEO van Zyl dies at age 63
CPS transportation exec on leave after contentious busing plan rollout
Here’s How To Import A Japanese Car To America Without Hassle
Sonic Automotive ponders EchoPark future
How to Get a Bear Out of Your Car – Videos from The Weather Channel
Towing company agrees to pay troops for illegally selling their vehicles
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Biden wants U.S automakers to pledge 40% electric vehicles by 2030 -sources N.Y.’s Transit System Could Receive $10 Billion in Infrastructure Deal 2022 Subaru BRZ Starts Just Under $29,000 Review: The best bicycle tyre inflators to use with an air compressor Ex-Toyota Europe CEO van Zyl dies at age 63 CPS transportation exec on leave after contentious busing plan rollout Here’s How To Import A Japanese Car To America Without Hassle Sonic Automotive ponders EchoPark future How to Get a Bear Out of Your Car – Videos from The Weather Channel Towing company agrees to pay troops for illegally selling their vehicles
Feb
2021
22

automotive industry | History, Overview, Definition, Developments, & Facts

Although steam-powered road vehicles were produced earlier, the origins of the automotive industry are rooted in the development of the gasoline engine in the 1860s and ’70s, principally in France and Germany. By the beginning of the 20th century, German and French manufacturers had been joined by British, Italian, and American makers.

Developments before World War I

Most early automobile companies were small shops, hundreds of which each produced a few handmade cars, and nearly all of which abandoned the business soon after going into it. The handful that survived into the era of large-scale production had certain characteristics in common. First, they fell into one of three well-defined categories: they were makers of bicycles, such as Opel in Germany and Morris in Great Britain; builders of horse-drawn vehicles, such as Durant and Studebaker in the United States; or, most frequently, machinery manufacturers. The kinds of machinery included stationary gas engines (Daimler of Germany, Lanchester of Britain, Olds of the United States), marine engines (Vauxhall of Britain), machine tools (Leland of the United States), sheep-shearing machinery (Wolseley of Britain), washing machines (Peerless of the United States), sewing machines (White of the United States), and woodworking and milling machinery (Panhard and Levassor of France). One American company, Pierce, made birdcages, and another, Buick, made plumbing fixtures, including the first enameled cast-iron bathtub. Two notable exceptions to the general pattern were Rolls-Royce in Britain and Ford in the United States, both of which were founded as carmakers by partners who combined engineering talent and business skill.

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In the United States almost all of the producers were assemblers who put together components and parts that were manufactured by separate firms. The assembly technique also lent itself to an advantageous method of financing. It was possible to begin building motor vehicles with a minimal investment of capital by buying parts on credit and selling the finished cars for cash; the cash sale from manufacturer to dealer has been integral in the marketing of motor vehicles in the United States ever since. European automotive firms of this period tended to be more self-sufficient.

The pioneer automobile manufacturer not only had to solve the technical and financial problems of getting into production but also had to make a basic decision about what to produce. After the first success of the gasoline engine, there was widespread experimentation with steam and electricity. For a brief period the electric automobile actually enjoyed the greatest acceptance because it was quiet and easy to operate, but the limitations imposed by battery capacity proved competitively fatal. Especially popular with women, electric cars remained in limited production well into the 1920s. One of the longest-surviving makers, Detroit Electric Car Company, operated on a regular basis through 1929.

Steam power, a more serious rival, was aided by the general adoption, after 1900, of the so-called flash boiler, in which steam could be raised rapidly. The steam car was easy

Nov
2020
2

automobile | Definition, History, Industry, Design, & Facts

Automotive design

The modern automobile is a complex technical system employing subsystems with specific design functions. Some of these consist of thousands of component parts that have evolved from breakthroughs in existing technology or from new technologies such as electronic computers, high-strength plastics, and new alloys of steel and nonferrous metals. Some subsystems have come about as a result of factors such as air pollution, safety legislation, and competition between manufacturers throughout the world.

Passenger cars have emerged as the primary means of family transportation, with an estimated 1.4 billion in operation worldwide. About one-quarter of these are in the United States, where more than three trillion miles (almost five trillion kilometres) are traveled each year. In recent years, Americans have been offered hundreds of different models, about half of them from foreign manufacturers. To capitalize on their proprietary technological advances, manufacturers introduce new designs ever more frequently. With some 70 million new units built each year worldwide, manufacturers have been able to split the market into many very small segments that nonetheless remain profitable.

New technical developments are recognized to be the key to successful competition. Research and development engineers and scientists have been employed by all automobile manufacturers and suppliers to improve the body, chassis, engine, drivetrain, control systems, safety systems, and emission-control systems.

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These outstanding technical advancements are not made without economic consequences. According to a study by Ward’s Communications Incorporated, the average cost for a new American car increased $4,700 (in terms of the value of the dollar in 2000) between 1980 and 2001 because of mandated safety and emission-control performance requirements (such as the addition of air bags and catalytic converters). New requirements continued to be implemented in subsequent years. The addition of computer technology was another factor driving up car prices, which increased by 29 percent between 2009 and 2019. This is in addition to the consumer costs associated with engineering improvements in fuel economy, which may be offset by reduced fuel purchases.

Vehicle design depends to a large extent on its intended use. Automobiles for off-road use must be durable, simple systems with high resistance to severe overloads and extremes in operating conditions. Conversely, products that are intended for high-speed, limited-access road systems require more passenger comfort options, increased engine performance, and optimized high-speed handling and vehicle stability. Stability depends principally on the distribution of weight between the front and rear wheels, the height of the centre of gravity and its position relative to the aerodynamic centre of pressure of the vehicle, suspension characteristics, and the selection of which wheels are used for propulsion. Weight distribution depends principally on the location and size of the engine. The common practice of front-mounted engines exploits the stability that is more readily achieved with this layout. The development of aluminum engines and new manufacturing processes has, however, made it possible

May
2020
1

bicycle | Definition, History, Types, & Facts

Bicycle predecessors

Historians disagree about the invention of the bicycle, and many dates are challenged. It is most likely that no individual qualifies as the inventor and that the bicycle evolved through the efforts of many. Although Leonardo da Vinci was credited with having sketched a bicycle in 1492 in his Codex Atlanticus, the drawing was discovered to be a forgery added in the 1960s. Another presumed bicycle ancestor, the vélocifère, or célérifère, of the 1790s was a fast horse-drawn coach that is not considered to be a predecessor of the bicycle.


Draisiennes, hobby-horses, and other velocipedes

The first two-wheeled rider-propelled machine for which there is indisputable evidence was the draisienne, invented by Baron Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun of Germany. In 1817 he rode it for 14 km (9 miles), and the following year he exhibited it in Paris. Although von Drais called his device a Laufmaschine (“running machine”), draisienne and velocipede became more popular names. The machine was made of wood, and the seated rider propelled himself by paddling his feet against the ground. A balance board supported the rider’s arms. Although von Drais was granted patents, copies were soon being produced in other countries, including Great Britain, Austria, Italy, and the United States.

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Denis Johnson of London purchased a draisienne and patented an improved model in 1818 as the “pedestrian curricle.” The following year he produced more than 300, and they became commonly known as hobby-horses. They were very expensive, and many buyers were members of the nobility. Caricaturists called the devices “dandy horses,” and riders were sometimes jeered in public. The design raised health concerns, and riding proved impractical except on smooth roads. Johnson’s production ended after only six months. The brief draisienne–hobby-horse fad did not lead to sustained development of two-wheeled vehicles, but von Drais and Johnson established that the machines could remain balanced while in motion. For the next 40 years, most experimenters focused on human-powered three- and four-wheeled velocipedes.

Treadles and pedals: powered velocipedes

There is evidence that a small number of two-wheeled machines with rear treadle drives were built in southwestern Scotland during the early 1840s. Kirkpatrick Macmillan, a blacksmith of Dumfriesshire, is most often associated with these. He is said to have traveled 40 miles (64 km) to Glasgow in 1842, although documentation is problematic. Gavin Dalzell of Lesmahagow probably built a similar two-wheeled machine in the mid-1840s and is said to have operated it for many years. This may be the heavily restored machine in the Glasgow Museum of Transport. It has wooden wheels and iron rims. The rider’s feet swung treadles back and forth, moving a pair of rods connected to cranks on the rear wheels. Thomas McCall, another Scotsman, built similar machines in the late 1860s. Documents indicate that Alexandre Lefèbvre of Saint-Denis, France, built a two-wheeled velocipede powered by treadles connected to cranks on the rear wheel

Apr
2020
3

Automobile History – Top 10 Interesting Facts


Automobiles have been around since as early as 1769, when the first steam engine powered automobiles were produced. In 1807, Francois Isaac de Rivaz designed the first car that was powered by an internal combustion engine running on fuel gas. The journey of modern automobiles began in 1886 when German inventor Karl Benz created an automobile that featured wire wheels with a four-stroke engine fitted between the rear wheels. Named as ‘Benz Patent Motorwagen’, it was the first automobile that generated its own power, which is the reason why Karl Benz was given its patent and is called the inventor of modern automobiles.


So we shortlisted ten things you probably did not know about the history of automobiles.


1. Adolf Hitler ordered Ferdinand Porsche to manufacture a Volkswagen, which literally means ‘People’s Car’ in German. This car went on to become the Volkswagen Beetle.


Volkswagen Beetle Prototype Sketch


What’s also interesting to know is that a surviving sketch from the 1930s – that was allegedly penciled by Hitler himself – looks similar to the production version of the first Beetle. The drawing was said to have been given to Daimler-Benz before being given to Porsche in Nuremberg.


2. In 1971, the cabinet of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi proposed the production of a ‘People’s Car’ for India – the contract of which was given to Sanjay Gandhi. Before contacting Suzuki, Sanjay Gandhi held talks with Volkswagen AG for a possible joint venture, encompassing transfer of technology and joint production of the Indian version of the ‘People’s car’, that would also mirror Volkswagen’s global success with the Beetle.


Maruti 800


However, it was Suzuki that won the final contract since it was quicker in providing a feasible design. The resulting car was based on Suzuki’s Model 796 and went on to rewrite automotive history in India as the Maruti 800.


3. Rolls-Royce Ltd. was essentially a car and airplane engine making company, established in 1906 by Charles Stewart Rolls and Frederick Henry Royce.


Rolls Royce First Car Sivler Ghost


The same year, Rolls-Royce rolled out its first car, the Silver Ghost. In 1907, the car set a record for traversing 24,000 kilometers during the Scottish reliability trials.


4. The most expensive car ever sold at a public auction was a 1954 Mercedes-Benz W196R Formula 1 race car, which went for a staggering $30 million at Bonhams in July 2013. The record was previously held by a 1957 Ferrari Testa Rossa Prototype, sold in California at an auction for $16.4 million.


5. As a young man, Henry Ford used to repair watches for his friends and family using tools he made himself. He used a corset stay as tweezers and a filed shingle nail as a screwdriver.


Henry Ford with Model T Ford


6. In the year 1916, 55 per cent of the cars in the world were Model T Ford, which is still an unbroken record.

7. Volkswagen named several of its cars after wind. Passat –

Apr
2020
1

Velocipede Bicycle History and Facts


Velocipede is a term that describes human powered land vehicle with two or more wheels that has managed to become a synonym for the word bicycle in the
early history of those travel devices. However, even though the word “velocipede” was most famously used to describe balanced bicycle designs that had
pedals, the earliest appearance of the world Velocipede was tightly connected with the devices known as dandy horses, draisienne or hobby horses that were
originally invented as by the German Baron Karl Drais. Dandy horse bicycles featured very simple design where users propelled themselves by manually
reaching with legs to the ground where they could walk, run and then rest their legs while the force propelled simple bicycle forward.

Picture Of Different Velocipedes


First notable improvement upon dandy horse design arrived in 1818 by French inventor Nicéphore Niépce (best known as the father of modern photography), who
mounted adjustable seating position on this early dandy horse design. He named his invention velocipede, but that name was accepted all across the Europe
only around 50 years later when France became home of the first organized factory that produced first modern two-wheeled bicycle nicknamed Boneshaker that
was produced by Michaux Company.


Between 1817 when Nicéphore Niépce created his first velocipede and 1880 when first “safety bicycles” became highly popular across Europe, bicycle designs
were highly varied. Velocipedes created in that period came in many forms – monowheel, unicycle, bicycle, dicycle, tricycle and quadracycle. They all had
pedals, but no chain drive. The most popular velocipede design of that time was two wheeled penny-farthing, which featured very big front wheel and small
rear wheel. This design was popular after the introduction of chain drive-powered boneshaker, and it was a first velocipede type that was openly called
“bicycle”. Penny-farthing was not popular for large period of time, but during height of its use it became a synonym of a late Victorian era and origin
point of a cycling as a popular pastime and a sport.


Success of penny-farthing and French boneshaker had more lasting influence on the history of the bicycle. Its designs received numerous upgrades in the
decades after they were originally unveiled, leading up to the creation of the safety bicycle in the 1880s. They featured diamond frame design, two
identical wheels, use of rubber tires, pedals, and chain drive mechanism that enabled easier transfer of rotating force to the rear wheel. After
introduction of safety bicycles, the age of velocipedes came to an end, except in rare situations when some three or four-wheeled designs still remained in
use for industrial or railroad purposes (Draisine).


Today, velocipedes are still celebrated by several international cycling organizations, and they can be seen in public mostly at various circus shows or
public events with professional entertainers.

Source Article

Mar
2020
30

Fatality Facts 2018State by state

Overview

The number and types of motor vehicle crash deaths differ widely among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. A state’s population has an obvious effect on the number of motor vehicle deaths. Fatality rates per capita and per vehicle miles traveled provide a way of examining motor vehicle deaths relative to the population and amount of driving. However, many factors can affect these rates, including types of vehicles driven, travel speeds, rates of licensure, state traffic laws, emergency care capabilities, weather, and topography.

The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS).

Posted December 2019.


Fatal crash totals

There were 33,654 fatal motor vehicle crashes in the United States in 2018 in which 36,560 deaths occurred. This resulted in 11.2 deaths per 100,000 people and 1.13 deaths per 100 million miles traveled. The fatality rate per 100,000 people ranged from 4.4 in the District of Columbia to 22.2 in Mississippi. The death rate per 100 million miles traveled ranged from 0.54 in Massachusetts to 1.83 in South Carolina.





















Population, fatal motor vehicle crashes, motor vehicle crash deaths and motor vehicle crash death rates per state, 2018
State Population Vehicle miles traveled (millions) Fatal crashes Deaths Deaths per 100,000 population Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled
Alabama 4,887,871 71,167 876 953 19.5 1.34
Alaska 737,438 5,487 69 80 10.8 1.46
Arizona 7,171,646 66,145 916 1,010 14.1 1.53
Arkansas 3,013,825 36,675 472 516 17.1 1.41
California 39,557,045 348,796 3,259 3,563 9.0 1.02
Colorado 5,695,564 53,954 588 632 11.1 1.17
Connecticut 3,572,665 31,596 276 294 8.2 0.93
Delaware 967,171 10,179 104 111 11.5 1.09
District of Columbia 702,455 3,691 30 31 4.4 0.84
Florida 21,299,325 221,816 2,915 3,133 14.7 1.41
Georgia 10,519,475 131,456 1,407 1,504 14.3 1.14
Hawaii 1,420,491 10,887 110 117 8.2 1.07
Idaho 1,754,208 17,709 212 231 13.2 1.30
Illinois 12,741,080 107,954 948 1,031 8.1 0.96
Indiana 6,691,878 81,529 774 858 12.8 1.05
Iowa 3,156,145 33,282 291 318 10.1 0.96
Kansas 2,911,505 32,190 366 404 13.9 1.26
Kentucky 4,468,402 49,544 664 724 16.2 1.46
Louisiana 4,659,978 50,045 716 768 16.5
Mar
2020
29

automotive industry | History, Developments, & Facts

Although steam-powered road vehicles were produced earlier, the origins of the automotive industry are rooted in the development of the gasoline engine in the 1860s and ’70s, principally in France and Germany. By the beginning of the 20th century, German and French manufacturers had been joined by British, Italian, and American makers.

Developments before World War I

Most early automobile companies were small shops, hundreds of which each produced a few handmade cars, and nearly all of which abandoned the business soon after going into it. The handful that survived into the era of large-scale production had certain characteristics in common. First, they fell into one of three well-defined categories: they were makers of bicycles, such as Opel in Germany and Morris in Great Britain; builders of horse-drawn vehicles, such as Durant and Studebaker in the United States; or, most frequently, machinery manufacturers. The kinds of machinery included stationary gas engines (Daimler of Germany, Lanchester of Britain, Olds of the United States), marine engines (Vauxhall of Britain), machine tools (Leland of the United States), sheep-shearing machinery (Wolseley of Britain), washing machines (Peerless of the United States), sewing machines (White of the United States), and woodworking and milling machinery (Panhard and Levassor of France). One American company, Pierce, made birdcages, and another, Buick, made plumbing fixtures, including the first enameled cast-iron bathtub. Two notable exceptions to the general pattern were Rolls-Royce in Britain and Ford in the United States, both of which were founded as carmakers by partners who combined engineering talent and business skill.

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In the United States almost all of the producers were assemblers who put together components and parts that were manufactured by separate firms. The assembly technique also lent itself to an advantageous method of financing. It was possible to begin building motor vehicles with a minimal investment of capital by buying parts on credit and selling the finished cars for cash; the cash sale from manufacturer to dealer has been integral in the marketing of motor vehicles in the United States ever since. European automotive firms of this period tended to be more self-sufficient.

The pioneer automobile manufacturer not only had to solve the technical and financial problems of getting into production but also had to make a basic decision about what to produce. After the first success of the gasoline engine, there was widespread experimentation with steam and electricity. For a brief period the electric automobile actually enjoyed the greatest acceptance because it was quiet and easy to operate, but the limitations imposed by battery capacity proved competitively fatal. Especially popular with women, electric cars remained in limited production well into the 1920s. One of the longest-surviving makers, Detroit Electric Car Company, operated on a regular basis through 1929.

Steam power, a more serious rival, was aided by the general adoption, after 1900, of the so-called flash boiler, in which steam could be raised rapidly. The steam car