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Archive of posts published in the category: Examples
Apr
28

Concepts, Transport in Plants, Videos, Examples

Have you ever wondered how plants eat and drink? Or you thought they don’t feed on anything? How does anything transport in plants? How do they survive? Yes, plants also drink and eat just like you do! Interested in knowing how? Read the chapter below!

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Transportation In Plants

Transport in plants – plants are the type of organisms that have an autotrophic mode of nutrition. By taking in carbon dioxide from the air, minerals, and water from the soil, plants make their own food. After that, they release oxygen and water vapor. This process is Photosynthesis.

transport in plants

By this process, plants synthesize their food in the leaves. For trees, leaves are considered to be food factories. For the process of photosynthesis, raw materials should be transported to the leaves. For transport in plants, they need a transport system to move food, water, and minerals around because for them no heart, no blood, and since these plants do not have a circulatory system, transportation makes up for it.

Why is Transportation An Essential Process?

To circulate water, essential nutrients, excretory products, and gases within the plants for various purposes, transportation in plants is necessary. In vascular tissues, this transportation in the plant takes place. By a suction force, water and minerals are transported to various parts of the plant.

Vascular tissues are normally conducting tissues. The formation of these tissues can be done by xylem and phloem of a plant. Without the use of pump how water moves up the plant against gravity in tubes made of dead xylem cells can be explained by only the transportation process.

The Process of Transportation

In plants, there are pipe-like vessels through which water and minerals can enter the plants. These vessels are made up of elongated cells and thick walls. A group of cells forms a tissue that performs a specialized function within the organisms. These are conducting tissues. These conducting tissues are divided into two types which are xylem and phloem.

  • Xylem: It is a vascular tissue that spreads from the top to bottom of the plant. For the transport of water molecules, it helps a lot. It also plays a vital role in the case of dissolved substances from the root hairs to aerial parts of the plant. It transfers water in one direction. Commonly, xylem occupies the central part of the vascular bundle. It mainly includes different types of cells such as tracheid, vessels, and xylem parenchyma and xylem fibers.
  • Phloem: It is also vascular tissue. In a plant where the necessity of food molecules is there, the use of the phloem transportation process will take place. Some elements are there in the phloem such as sieve elements, phloem parenchyma, fibers, and companion cells.

The transportation process in this tissue is bidirectional. In association with xylem, it forms vascular bundles. The edges of vascular bundles are occupied by phloem.

Question For You

Q. How do the cells function in potato?

Ans: First, peel a potato

Mar
29

Definition and Examples of Vehicles in Metaphors

In a metaphor, the vehicle is the figure of speech itself–that is, the immediate image that embodies or “carries” the tenor (the subject of the metaphor). The interaction of vehicle and tenor results in the meaning of the metaphor.

For example, if you call a person who spoils other people’s fun a “wet blanket,” “wet blanket” is the vehicle and the spoilsport is the tenor.

The terms vehicle and tenor were introduced by British rhetorician Ivor Armstrong Richards in The Philosophy of Rhetoric (1936). Richards emphasized the “tension” that often exists between vehicle and tenor. 

In the article “Metaphor Shifting in the Dynamics of Talk,” Lynne Cameron observes that the “multiple possibilities” evoked by a vehicle “are both derived from and constrained by speakers’ experience of the world, their socio-cultural contexts, and their discourse purposes” (Confronting Metaphor in Use, 2008).

See Examples and Observations below. Also see:

Examples and Observations

  • Tenor and Vehicle
    “Because he was dissatisfied with the traditional grammatical and rhetorical account of metaphor, which he believed emphasized its merely decorative and embellishing powers, I. A. Richards in 1936 reintroduced this pair of terms . . . with the notion of ‘a borrowing between and intercourse of thoughts.’ Since any metaphor at its simplest gives two parts, the thing meant and the thing said, Richards used tenor to refer to the thing meant—purport, underlying meaning, or main subject of the metaphor—and vehicle to mean the thing said—that which serves to carry or embody the tenor as the analogy brought to the subject. . . .
    “The vehicle, [Richards said], ‘is not normally mere embellishment of a tenor which is otherwise unchanged by it but . . . vehicle and tenor in cooperation give a meaning of more varied powers than can be ascribed to either.'”
    (Norman Friedman in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 4th ed., ed. by Roland Greene, Stephen Cushman et al. Princeton University Press, 2012)
  • Time Bombs as Vehicles
    – “Unambiguous vehicle terms are those that people agree about: there is consensus about what properties they represent. One example of an unambiguous vehicle is time bomb. People agree that time bomb epitomizes something that can cause considerable damage at some unpredictable time in the future.”
    (Sam Glucksberg, Understanding Figurative Language: From Metaphor to Idioms. Oxford University Press, 2001)
    – “Some three decades after China launched its highly controversial policy restricting families to having one child, the government may soon allow a two-child policy to curb a demographic time bomb. . . .
    “The law is believed to have resulted in millions of forced abortions, and has left China with the combination of a rapidly ageing population, a shallow labour pool and an imbalance in the sex ratio. The result is a demographic time bomb.”
    (Kashmira Gander, “China May Scrap One-Child Policy to Curb Demographic Time Bomb.” The Independent [UK], July 23, 2015)
    – “Wedged in the narrow space behind us was the umbrella stroller that held Teddy,