Tag Archives

Archive of posts published in the category: ElectricVehicle
May
12

Trends in electric-vehicle design | McKinsey

Regulatory pressures on internal combustion engines (ICEs), combined with technological improvements in electric powertrains and batteries, are driving a surge of demand for electric vehicles (EVs). Most incumbent car manufacturers are rolling out models, joined by new entrants without ICE legacies. Worldwide sales of pure battery EVs (excluding hybrids) grew by approximately 45 percent in 2016.

With EVs becoming mass-market products, it is time for a detailed understanding of technology trends. In collaboration with A2Mac1, a provider of automotive benchmarking services, we conducted a large-scale benchmarking of first- and second-generation EV models, which included physically disassembling ten EV models: the 2011 Nissan LEAF, the 2013 Volkswagen e-up!, the 2013 Tesla Model S 60, the 2014 Chevrolet Spark, the 2014 BMW i3, the 2015 Volkswagen e-Golf, the 2015 BYD e6, the 2017 Nissan LEAF, the 2017 Chevrolet Bolt, and the 2017 Opel Ampera-e.

Together, these models account for about 40 percent of all pure-battery EVs ever produced. In addition to the ten torn-down vehicles, we analyzed publicly available information on additional vehicles and consulted independent subject-matter experts. The resulting analysis shows that successfully producing EVs requires radically different thinking. We identified five key insights:

Want a high-performing electric vehicle? Build a native platform

The benchmarking shows a clear gap in driving range and interior space between models with native EV platforms and those based on ICE. Native EVs optimize battery packaging; non-native EVs force the battery into the awkward footprint of the ICE platform, which limits the realized energy capacity. The native EV battery pack, by contrast, can take a simple, rectangular shape, giving native EVs up to twice the range—over 300 kilometers per charge and up to approximately 400 kilometers for the best performers, according to the Environmental Protection Agency—without forcing up the price (Exhibit 1). In addition, native EVs achieve a larger interior space (up to 10 percent by regression line) for the same wheelbase compared with not only non-native counterparts, but also standard ICE vehicles in the same segment.

We strive to provide individuals with disabilities equal access to our website. If you would like information about this content we will be happy to work with you. Please email us at: McKinsey_Website_Accessibility@mckinsey.com

There’s no convergence yet on core EV powertrain design

The benchmarking included a teardown of the battery, the battery cells, and the thermal-management system. We found three battery-cell designs with different geometries (cylindrical, prismatic, and pouch), along with multiple chemistries. With each design having clear advantages and disadvantages, there is no winner on overall performance for mass-market EVs, as our benchmarking also revealed similar energy density increases of more than 30 percent over a period of seven years (2011 to 2018) across all designs. We also found a large variance in the design approach for thermal management with four battery-cooling solutions: passive (natural air cooling), active combined with powertrain, active but stand-alone dedicated to the battery, and active combined with the air-conditioning circuit. We also

Apr
8

GM ‘Came Out Swinging’ Against Tesla With Its Electric-Vehicle Technology

Text size

The General Motors logo


Photograph by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

General Motors
has big electric-vehicle ambitions, and Wall Street appears to be impressed.

“GM comes out swinging against Tesla,” Wedbush analyst Dan Ives wrote in a Wednesday evening research report, following the company’s electric-vehicle technology presentation near Detroit earlier in the day.

Ives covers
Tesla
(ticker: TSLA) stock but not General Motors (GM). He was interested in what the state of EV technology is at a traditional auto maker that predominantly builds gasoline-powered vehicles. “We believe the event was a clear shot across the bow against [Elon] Musk and Tesla, which continues to lead the EV landscape by a clear margin.”

Even though Ives thinks Tesla is in the lead, he said Musk’s company has to take GM “seriously in this EV arms race.”

GM CEO Mary Barra said Wednesday that “from 2020 to 2025, we will allocate more than $20 billion of capital and engineering resources to our EV and [autonomous vehicle] programs. “Our investments are delivering real results and as you will see here today, they will dramatically change the future of this company and of our industry.”

GM wants to sell 1 million electric vehicles annually by the middle of the 2030s. It should be noted that Tesla plans to sell 500,000 electric vehicles in 2020. That’s part of the lead Ives mentioned.

“GM’s EV day should help show investors that GM is serious about decarbonization and has a strong plan,” RBC analyst Joe Spak wrote in a Thursday research report. He noted that GM is planning to offer 20 battery-powered models by 2023. Spak is a GM bull, rating shares the equivalent of Buy. His price target is $49 for GM stock. Spak is also a Telsa skeptic. He ratse Tesla stock the equivalent of Sell and has a $530 price target for shares.

J.P. Morgan analyst Ryan Brinkman has the same rating structure on the stocks—buy GM, sell Tesla. “GM showcased its work on a next generation of batteries it calls Ultium which possess performance characteristics when mated to its new drive units that we estimate are at least on par with or even exceed that of the most advanced competition,” he wrote in a Thursday research report.

Brinkman noted that GM says its batteries can travel up to 400 miles on a charge without compromising performance, such as rapid acceleration. Telsa’s base Model 3 will go about 320 miles on one charge. That is one data point in favor of GM, but apples to apple comparisons are difficult. Factors such as how many battery cells are included in a car’s battery pack isn’t known. EVs, in theory, can increase range by adding battery cells. That, of course, adds cost and weight.

“GM made a compelling presentation that it will be among the leaders globally in electric vehicles…and made a compelling case that along with its partner LG Chem, its battery science was at the leading edge,” Benchmark analyst Mike Ward said in an