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Archive of posts published in the category: components
Apr
5

How bicycle is made – material, manufacture, history, used, components, dimensions, machine, History

Background

Bicycles are one of the world’s most popular modes of
transportation, with some 800 million bicycles outnumbering cars by two to
one. Bicycles are also the most energy-efficient vehicle—a cyclist
burns about 35 calories per mile (22 calories per km), while an automobile
burns 1,860 calories per mile (1,156 calories per km). Bicycles are used
not only for transportation, but for fitness, competition, and touring as
well. They come in myriad shapes and styles, including racing bikes,
all-terrain bikes, and stationary bicycles, as well as unicycles,
tricycles, and tandems.

History

As far back as 1490, Leonardo da Vinci had envisioned a machine remarkably
similar to the modern bicycle. Unfortunately, da Vinci did not attempt to
build the vehicle, nor were his sketches discovered until the 1960s. In
the late 1700s a Frenchman named Comte de Sivrac invented the Celerifere,
a crude wooden hobby horse made of two wheels and joined by a beam. The
rider would sit atop the beam and propel the contraption by pushing his or
her feet against the ground.

In 1816 the German Baron Karl von Drais devised a steerable hobby horse,
and within a few years, hobby-horse riding was a fashionable pastime in
Europe. Riders also discovered that they could ride the device with their
feet off the ground without losing their balance. And so, in 1840, a
Scottish black-smith named Kirkpatrick Macmillan made a two-wheel device
that was operated by a treadle. Two years later he traveled as many as 40
miles (64 km) at a stretch during a record 140-mile (225 km) round trip to
Glasgow. A couple decades later, a Frenchman, Ernest Michaux, designed a
hobby horse that utilized cranks and rotating pedals connected to the
front axle. The Velocipede, made with wooden wheels and an


iron


frame and tires, won the nickname of the “boneshaker.”

The 1860s proved to be an important decade for bicycle improvements with
the inventions of ball-bearing hubs, metal-spoked wheels, solid rubber
tires, and a lever-operated, four-speed gearshift. Around 1866 an unusual
version of the Velocipede was created in England by James Stanley. It was
called the Ordinary, or Penny Farthing, and it had a large front wheel and
a small rear wheel. The Ordinaries were soon exported to the U.S. where a
company began to manufacture them as well. These bicycles weighed a hefty
70 pounds (32 kg) and cost $300—a substantial sum at the time.

By 1885, another Englishman, John Kemp Starley, created the Rover Safety,
so called since it was safer than the Ordinary which tended to cartwheel
the rider over the large front wheel at abrupt stops. The Safety had
equally sized wheels made of solid rubber, a chain-driven rear wheel, and
diamond-shaped frame. Other important developments in the 1800s included
the use of John Boyd Dunlop’s pneumatic tires, which had air-filled
inner tubes that provided shock absorption. Coaster brakes were developed
in 1898, and shortly thereafter freewheeling made biking easier by
allowing the wheels to continue to spin without pedaling.

The frame consists of the front and rear triangles, the front really forming more of a quadrilateral of four tubes: the top, seat, down, and head tubes. The rear triangle consists of the chainstays, seatstays, and rear wheel dropouts. Attached to the head tube at the front of the frame are the fork and steering tube.

The

Mar
5

The Differences Between OE OEM And OES Components

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