In 1887, Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act. The act established a five-member enforcement board known as the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). The act also made the railroad industry the first industry subject to federal regulation. At that time, the railroads were the primary mode of transportation, moving both passengers and freight. Following the Civil War, most railroads were privately owned and entirely unregulated. Moreover, the railroads held a natural monopoly in the areas that only they serviced. Congress passed the law largely in response to public demand that railroad operations be regulated.
The ICC regulated the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states from 1887 to 1995. The ICC was also the first regulatory commission established in the U.S., and oversaw common carriers (the ICC’s jurisdiction was broadened to include the trucking industry, as well as other industries).
While the argument can be made that the industries under ICC jurisdiction needed regulatory oversight, many industry observers believe that the ICC’s heavy-handed approach harmed those industries (particularly the railroad and trucking industries) over the decades.
When the ICC was abolished in 1995, other federal agencies acquired some of its duties and responsibilities. In regard to the railroad industry, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) was established on January 1, 1996, to assume some of the regulatory functions that had been administered by the ICC.
The STB is a federal, bipartisan, independent adjudicatory board. The STB is charged with the economic regulation of various modes of surface transportation, primarily freight rail. The STB “exercises its statutory authority and resolves disputes in support of an efficient, competitive and economically viable surface transportation network that meets the needs of its users.”
In operation now for more than 25 years, the STB has broad economic regulatory oversight of U.S. railroads, including rates and service, as well as the construction, acquisition and abandonment of rail lines. It also has oversight of carrier mergers (including the current acquisition of the Kansas City Southern Railway Company ) and interchange of traffic among carriers.
In addition, the STB has oversight of pipeline carriers, intercity bus carriers, moving van companies, trucking companies involved in collective activities, and water carriers engaged in noncontiguous domestic trade. The Board has wide discretion, through its exemption authority from federal, state and local laws, to modify its regulatory activities to meet the nation’s changing transportation needs.
The Board has five members nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate for five-year terms. Under the terms of the Surface Transportation Board Reauthorization Act, the Board was expanded from three to five members in 2015.
Gear Break: Primal: Can’t beat the Classics, 100copies new bicycle art print #48 – Journey to Zen, Princeton CarbonWorks PEAK 4550 wheels, PRO introduces the next-generation Stealth saddle range including the innovative new Stealth curved shape, Festka roaring ahead with a stunning car-to-bike design scheme, Lezyne: Perfect Pressure – Anywhere, Anytime and ABUS: Lock It Up!
Primal: Can’t Beat The Classics FREE DOMESTIC SHIPPING ON ORDERS $75+!
100copies New Bicycle Art Print #48 – Journey To Zen
Sometimes, taking our bike out for a ride brings us on an inward journey. Almost like a form of Zen meditation, the noise fades, our mind clears, and all we are focused on is the path before us. The longer and further we go, the more we learn about ourselves and the nature of our mind.
In these uncertain times, cycling has helped many reduce stress and anxiety, and even regain a sense of clarity. There’s much to be gained, so keep calm, and keep riding.
This artwork is inspired by Japanese Zen gardens. Its fluid strokes are created with a bold rake brush to simulate the continuous lines or samon (砂紋) in the gravel, and represent the journey each rider takes.
Sheet size: 500mm X 700mm
Print Quality: Offset Lithographic Printing using spot Pantone Black. Printed on 250gsm Tangerine White Paper. Suitable for archival use.
Princeton CarbonWorks PEAK 4550 A New Milestone in Performance Cycling Wheels Exceptional Handling. Ultra Lightweight. King of the Mountain.
Princeton CarbonWorks announces their all new PEAK 4550, developed in conjunction with the top cyclists in the world; a lighter, stiffer, stronger, and more aerodynamic solution directly targeted at world tour and grand tour racing.
Available in every configuration, (tubular, tubeless ready clincher, rim and disk brake) the PEAK 4550 set weighs as little as 1071g in tubular rim brake guise, with standard tubeless ready clincher versions weighing 1297g for rim brake and 1348g for disc brake.
Development priorities were to create an all-around race ready wheel with exceptional aerodynamic characteristics and the strength and stiffness to transfer high wattages to the ground. The performance characteristics of grand tour riding are perhaps the most difficult to synthesize in a single wheelset. Riders need a wheelset that is light and responsive for the climbs. On the descents, they need predictable and sharp handing. In the valleys, the wheelset needs to be aerodynamic and impervious to crosswinds. And above all of that, the wheels need to hold up to thousands of kilometers of full gas racing.
PCW’s standard non-drilled tire bed facilitates a stiffer outer rim and transfers some material away from the tire bed to other critical areas in the wheel, helping to keep wheel weight low while maintaining high stiffness values.
A limited Launch Edition will be available starting June 26th; standard black graphics and custom options and hub choices will become available later in 2021.