Overview

The number and types of motor vehicle crash deaths differ widely among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. A state’s population has an obvious effect on the number of motor vehicle deaths. Fatality rates per capita and per vehicle miles traveled provide a way of examining motor vehicle deaths relative to the population and amount of driving. However, many factors can affect these rates, including types of vehicles driven, travel speeds, rates of licensure, state traffic laws, emergency care capabilities, weather, and topography.

The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS).

Posted December 2019.


Fatal crash totals

There were 33,654 fatal motor vehicle crashes in the United States in 2018 in which 36,560 deaths occurred. This resulted in 11.2 deaths per 100,000 people and 1.13 deaths per 100 million miles traveled. The fatality rate per 100,000 people ranged from 4.4 in the District of Columbia to 22.2 in Mississippi. The death rate per 100 million miles traveled ranged from 0.54 in Massachusetts to 1.83 in South Carolina.























































Population, fatal motor vehicle crashes, motor vehicle crash deaths and motor vehicle crash death rates per state, 2018
State Population Vehicle miles traveled (millions) Fatal crashes Deaths Deaths per 100,000 population Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled
Alabama 4,887,871 71,167 876 953 19.5 1.34
Alaska 737,438 5,487 69 80 10.8 1.46
Arizona 7,171,646 66,145 916 1,010 14.1 1.53
Arkansas 3,013,825 36,675 472 516 17.1 1.41
California 39,557,045 348,796 3,259 3,563 9.0 1.02
Colorado 5,695,564 53,954 588 632 11.1 1.17
Connecticut 3,572,665 31,596 276 294 8.2 0.93
Delaware 967,171 10,179 104 111 11.5 1.09
District of Columbia 702,455 3,691 30 31 4.4 0.84
Florida 21,299,325 221,816 2,915 3,133 14.7 1.41
Georgia 10,519,475 131,456 1,407 1,504 14.3 1.14
Hawaii 1,420,491 10,887 110 117 8.2 1.07
Idaho 1,754,208 17,709 212 231 13.2 1.30
Illinois 12,741,080 107,954 948 1,031 8.1 0.96
Indiana 6,691,878 81,529 774 858 12.8 1.05
Iowa 3,156,145 33,282 291 318 10.1 0.96
Kansas 2,911,505 32,190 366 404 13.9 1.26
Kentucky 4,468,402 49,544 664 724 16.2 1.46
Louisiana 4,659,978 50,045 716 768 16.5 1.53
Maine 1,338,404 14,784 128 137 10.2 0.93
Maryland 6,042,718 59,775 474 501 8.3 0.84
Massachusetts 6,902,149 66,772 343 360 5.2 0.54
Michigan 9,995,915 102,398 905 974 9.7 0.95
Minnesota 5,611,179 60,438 349 381 6.8 0.63
Mississippi 2,986,530 40,730 597 664 22.2 1.63
Missouri 6,126,452 76,595 848 921 15.0 1.20
Montana 1,062,305 12,700 168 182 17.1 1.43
Nebraska 1,929,268 20,975 201 230 11.9 1.10
Nevada 3,034,392 28,319 300 330 10.9 1.17
New Hampshire 1,356,458 13,776 134 147 10.8 1.07
New Jersey 8,908,520 77,539 525 564 6.3 0.73
New Mexico 2,095,428 27,288 350 391 18.7 1.43
New York 19,542,209 123,510 889 943 4.8 0.76
North Carolina 10,383,620 121,127 1,321 1,437 13.8 1.19
North Dakota 760,077 9,856 95 105 13.8 1.07
Ohio 11,689,442 114,474 996 1,068 9.1 0.93
Oklahoma 3,943,079 45,433 603 655 16.6 1.44
Oregon 4,190,713 36,848 450 506 12.1 1.37
Pennsylvania 12,807,060 102,109 1,103 1,190 9.3 1.17
Rhode Island 1,057,315 8,009 56 59 5.6 0.74
South Carolina 5,084,127 56,801 970 1,037 20.4 1.83
South Dakota 882,235 9,719 110 130 14.7 1.34
Tennessee 6,770,010 81,321 974 1,041 15.4 1.28
Texas 28,701,845 282,037 3,305 3,642 12.7 1.29
Utah 3,161,105 32,069 237 260 8.2 0.81
Vermont 626,299 7,346 60 68 10.9 0.93
Virginia 8,517,685 85,336 778 820 9.6 0.96
Washington 7,535,591 62,367 497 546 7.2 0.88
West Virginia 1,805,832 19,447 265 294 16.3 1.51
Wisconsin 5,813,568 65,885 530 588 10.1 0.89
Wyoming 577,737 10,438 100 111 19.2 1.06
U.S. total 327,167,434 3,240,323 33,654 36,560 11.2 1.13


Deaths by road user

In 2018, the types of motor vehicle crash deaths varied across states. For example, Wyoming had the highest percentage of deaths involving SUV and pickup occupants (49 percent) and a relatively low percentage of deaths involving car occupants (23 percent). In contrast, Vermont had the highest percentage of deaths involving car occupants (49 percent) and a relatively low percentage of deaths involving SUV and pickup occupants (26 percent). Hawaii reported relatively low proportions of fatalities for both cars (15 percent) and SUVs and pickups (15 percent), but a high percentage of motorcyclist deaths (29 percent) and the highest percentage of pedestrian deaths (36 percent). The District of Columbia had the highest percentage of crash deaths involving bicyclists (10 percent) and a high percentage involving pedestrians (35 percent) and motorcyclists (26 percent).

























































Motor vehicle crash deaths by road user type and state, 2018
State Car occupants Pickup and SUV occupants Large truck occupants Motorcyclists Pedestrians Bicyclists Total*
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Alabama 415 44 305 32 17 2 82 9 107 11 9 1 953 100
Alaska 22 28 25 31 1 1 12 15 14 18 0 0 80 100
Arizona 269 27 217 21 14 1 149 15 237 23 23 2 1,010 100
Arkansas 163 32 187 36 24 5 66 13 62 12 3 1 516 100
California 1,248 35 654 18 38 1 488 14 893 25 154 4 3,563 100
Colorado 186 29 210 33 12 2 103 16 89 14 22 3 632 100
Connecticut 125 43 49 17 5 2 49 17 60 20 1 0 294 100
Delaware 39 35 24 22 1 1 17 15 23 21 6 5 111 100
District of Columbia 7 23 1 3 0 0 8 26 11 35 3 10 31 100
Florida 1,009 32 562 18 42 1 574 18 704 22 160 5 3,133 100
Georgia 550 37 426 28 31 2 154 10 261 17 30 2 1,504 100
Hawaii 17 15 18 15 0 0 34 29 42 36 2 2 117 100
Idaho 76 33 72 31 7 3 38 16 17 7 2 1 231 100
Illinois 419 41 241 23 23 2 119 12 165 16 24 2 1,031 100
Indiana 357 42 198 23 19 2 117 14 114 13 22 3 858 100
Iowa 128 40 92 29 7 2 43 14 22 7 7 2 318 100
Kansas 139 34 148 37 11 3 64 16 29 7 5 1 404 100
Kentucky 298 41 214 30 14 2 95 13 73 10 10 1 724 100
Louisiana 248 32 214 28 10 1 79 10 164 21 28 4 768 100
Maine 60 44 40 29 0 0 23 17 7 5 2 1 137 100
Maryland 196 39 95 19 9 2 62 12 128 26 5 1 501 100
Massachusetts 129 36 75 21 4 1 59 16 78 22 4 1 360 100
Michigan 377 39 250 26 8 1 143 15 142 15 21 2 974 100
Minnesota 144 38 105 28 3 1 59 15 42 11 7 2 381 100
Mississippi 262 39 228 34 16 2 41 6 88 13 6 1 664 100
Missouri 367 40 286 31 22 2 113 12 95 10 2 0 921 100
Montana 48 26 85 47 4 2 21 12 15 8 2 1 182 100
Nebraska 88 38 77 33 11 5 23 10 24 10 0 0 230 100
Nevada 103 31 67 20 2 1 59 18 79 24 8 2 330 100
New Hampshire 52 35 47 32 3 2 28 19 9 6 2 1 147 100
New Jersey 205 36 84 15 13 2 53 9 173 31 18 3 564 100
New Mexico 112 29 114 29 8 2 45 12 83 21 11 3 391 100
New York 301 32 163 17 8 1 149 16 262 28 29 3 943 100
North Carolina 567 39 372 26 21 1 191 13 225 16 18 1 1,437 100
North Dakota 25 24 49 47 2 2 16 15 6 6 2 2 105 100
Ohio 469 44 251 24 23 2 145 14 127 12 22 2 1,068 100
Oklahoma 236 36 207 32 25 4 91 14 60 9 16 2 655 100
Oregon 156 31 129 25 11 2 78 15 80 16 9 2 506 100
Pennsylvania 469 39 273 23 14 1 165 14 197 17 18 2 1,190 100
Rhode Island 18 31 12 20 0 0 18 31 7 12 1 2 59 100
South Carolina 389 38 285 27 16 2 141 14 165 16 23 2 1,037 100
South Dakota 50 38 44 34 4 3 16 12 10 8 0 0 130 100
Tennessee 402 39 284 27 17 2 168 16 136 13 8 1 1,041 100
Texas 1,160 32 1,191 33 98 3 416 11 612 17 69 2 3,642 100
Utah 86 33 69 27 8 3 47 18 36 14 3 1 260 100
Vermont 33 49 18 26 2 3 7 10 6 9 0 0 68 100
Virginia 349 43 200 24 22 3 100 12 118 14 12 1 820 100
Washington 186 34 139 25 5 1 80 15 102 19 16 3 546 100
West Virginia 107 36 90 31 10 3 39 13 22 7 5 2 294 100
Wisconsin 251 43 164 28 7 1 83 14 56 10 4 1 588 100
Wyoming 26 23 54 49 6 5 15 14 6 5 0 0 111 100
U.S. total 13,138 36 9,404 26 678 2 4,985 14 6,283 17 854 2 36,560 100


Crash types

Nationwide, 53 percent of motor vehicle crash deaths in 2018 occurred in single-vehicle crashes. Montana had the highest percentage of deaths in single-vehicle crashes (71 percent), while Nebraska had the highest percentage of deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes (57 percent).
























































Deaths by crash type and state, 2018
State Single-vehicle Multiple-vehicle All crashes
Number % Number % Number %
Alabama 514 54 439 46 953 100
Alaska 45 56 35 44 80 100
Arizona 581 58 429 42 1,010 100
Arkansas 285 55 231 45 516 100
California 1,956 55 1,607 45 3,563 100
Colorado 346 55 286 45 632 100
Connecticut 166 56 128 44 294 100
Delaware 55 50 56 50 111 100
District of Columbia 20 65 11 35 31 100
Florida 1,621 52 1,512 48 3,133 100
Georgia 831 55 673 45 1,504 100
Hawaii 72 62 45 38 117 100
Idaho 129 56 102 44 231 100
Illinois 528 51 503 49 1,031 100
Indiana 427 50 431 50 858 100
Iowa 143 45 175 55 318 100
Kansas 201 50 203 50 404 100
Kentucky 378 52 346 48 724 100
Louisiana 448 58 320 42 768 100
Maine 83 61 54 39 137 100
Maryland 260 52 241 48 501 100
Massachusetts 214 59 146 41 360 100
Michigan 460 47 514 53 974 100
Minnesota 188 49 193 51 381 100
Mississippi 367 55 297 45 664 100
Missouri 478 52 443 48 921 100
Montana 129 71 53 29 182 100
Nebraska 98 43 132 57 230 100
Nevada 173 52 157 48 330 100
New Hampshire 87 59 60 41 147 100
New Jersey 309 55 255 45 564 100
New Mexico 220 56 171 44 391 100
New York 562 60 381 40 943 100
North Carolina 745 52 692 48 1,437 100
North Dakota 53 50 52 50 105 100
Ohio 535 50 533 50 1,068 100
Oklahoma 300 46 355 54 655 100
Oregon 275 54 231 46 506 100
Pennsylvania 629 53 561 47 1,190 100
Rhode Island 36 61 23 39 59 100
South Carolina 573 55 464 45 1,037 100
South Dakota 82 63 48 37 130 100
Tennessee 543 52 498 48 1,041 100
Texas 1,840 51 1,802 49 3,642 100
Utah 137 53 123 47 260 100
Vermont 37 54 31 46 68 100
Virginia 470 57 350 43 820 100
Washington 325 60 221 40 546 100
West Virginia 154 52 140 48 294 100
Wisconsin 312 53 276 47 588 100
Wyoming 61 55 50 45 111 100
U.S. total 19,481 53 17,079 47 36,560 100


Alcohol involvement

Some states report blood alcohol concentration (BAC) for only a small percentage of passenger vehicle drivers. If BAC is missing for a driver, it is estimated by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s multiple imputation model.
However, BAC information is most precise in states that report a high percentage of crashes where BAC information is reported. In the following table, estimated percentages of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs at or above 0.08 percent are shown only for states in which BAC reporting for fatally injured drivers was 70 percent or higher. Estimated percentages are based on known BAC when available and imputed BAC for the remaining drivers.

For the nation in 2018, BAC was reported for 65 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers. Reporting rates varied substantially, from a high of 100 percent (District of Columbia) to a low of 26 percent (Indiana).

Thirty-one states and the District of Columbia had BAC reporting rates of at least 70 percent. Among these states, Montana had the highest estimated percentage of fatally injured drivers with BACs of 0.08 percent or higher (45 percent) and West Virginia had the lowest (12 percent).

























































Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BAC ≥ 0.08 percent by state, 2018
State Total drivers killed Drivers killed with known BAC results Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08
Number Number % Number %
Alabama 566 325 57
Alaska 32 20 63
Arizona 353 219 62
Arkansas 280 202 72 73 26
California 1,369 896 65
Colorado 286 252 88 96 34
Connecticut 127 62 49
Delaware 46 37 80 16 34
District of Columbia 5 5 100 1 20
Florida 1,162 687 59
Georgia 754 397 53
Hawaii 26 21 81 9 34
Idaho 114 80 70 29 26
Illinois 509 435 85 151 30
Indiana 435 115 26
Iowa 180 107 59
Kansas 229 70 31
Kentucky 401 286 71 74 18
Louisiana 363 312 86 108 30
Maine 78 64 82 18 23
Maryland 210 159 76 48 23
Massachusetts 169 153 91 56 33
Michigan 483 257 53
Minnesota 193 169 88 56 29
Mississippi 378 177 47
Missouri 505 389 77 124 25
Montana 108 94 87 48 45
Nebraska 115 88 77 33 28
Nevada 134 93 69
New Hampshire 80 75 94 22 27
New Jersey 210 171 81 56 27
New Mexico 158 113 72 47 30
New York 359 239 67
North Carolina 724 354 49
North Dakota 56 47 84 17 30
Ohio 569 464 82 147 26
Oklahoma 351 318 91 69 20
Oregon 199 140 70 54 27
Pennsylvania 584 302 52
Rhode Island 21 17 81 7 35
South Carolina 542 384 71 163 30
South Dakota 68 60 88 25 37
Tennessee 518 242 47
Texas 1,760 883 50
Utah 110 96 87 28 25
Vermont 37 33 89 10 27
Virginia 437 377 86 135 31
Washington 237 193 81 73 31
West Virginia 148 130 88 18 12
Wisconsin 328 275 84 116 35
Wyoming 62 25 40
U.S. total 17,168 11,109 65 4,946 29


Restraint use

Based on daytime observational surveys conducted by the states, the nationwide rate of seat belt use among front seat passenger vehicle occupants in 2018 was 90 percent. The state with the highest observed seat belt use for front seat occupants was Hawaii, at 98 percent, while the lowest was New Hampshire at 76 percent.

Rates of restraint use among fatally injured motor vehicle occupants will be lower than the overall observed restraint use rate because unrestrained occupants are more likely than restrained ones to be fatally injured in a crash. Restrained fatally injured occupants include occupants in child safety seats and occupants restrained by seat belts. In 2018, fatally injured occupants were approximately half as likely to have been restrained compared with the nationwide average. California had the highest restraint use percentage among fatally injured occupants at 61 percent. New Hampshire had the lowest restraint use among fatally injured occupants at just 28 percent.
























































Rates of observed daytime front-seat belt use and number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants by restraint use and state, 2018
State and percent of observed seat belt use Restrained fatally injured occupants Unrestrained fatally injured occupants Unknown restraint status of fatally injured occupants Total fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants
Number % Number % Number % Number
Alabama 92 301 42 359 50 63 9 723
Alaska 92 20 43 22 47 5 11 47
Arizona 86 197 39 235 47 69 14 501
Arkansas 78 144 41 178 51 30 9 352
California 96 1,170 61 594 31 160 8 1,924
Colorado 86 172 43 216 54 15 4 403
Connecticut 92 76 43 69 39 32 18 177
Delaware 92 29 46 33 52 1 2 63
District of Columbia 95 3 38 1 12 4 50 8
Florida 91 844 53 703 44 45 3 1,592
Georgia 96 448 45 442 44 105 11 995
Hawaii 98 12 33 15 42 9 25 36
Idaho 85 59 38 82 53 13 8 154
Illinois 95 330 49 249 37 96 14 675
Indiana 93 272 48 214 38 79 14 565
Iowa 94 120 54 78 35 26 12 224
Kansas 84 133 46 130 45 25 9 288
Kentucky 90 236 46 281 54 0 0 517
Louisiana 87 212 45 223 47 36 8 471
Maine 89 51 50 50 50 0 0 101
Maryland 90 159 54 104 36 29 10 292
Massachusetts 82 65 31 103 49 42 20 210
Michigan 93 354 55 182 28 104 16 640
Minnesota 92 123 48 84 33 47 19 254
Mississippi 80 208 42 281 57 5 1 494
Missouri 87 233 35 385 58 46 7 664
Montana 87 45 33 87 64 3 2 135
Nebraska 86 57 35 88 53 20 12 165
Nevada 92 89 51 77 45 7 4 173
New Hampshire 76 29 28 71 70 2 2 102
New Jersey 95 159 53 126 42 13 4 298
New Mexico 90 90 39 116 51 23 10 229
New York 93 259 55 153 33 57 12 469
North Carolina 91 522 54 395 41 44 5 961
North Dakota 83 29 39 37 49 9 12 75
Ohio 85 321 44 334 46 77 11 732
Oklahoma 86 205 46 209 46 36 8 450
Oregon 96 156 54 76 26 57 20 289
Pennsylvania 89 266 35 386 51 104 14 756
Rhode Island 89 13 43 13 43 4 13 30
South Carolina 90 318 47 332 49 33 5 683
South Dakota 79 29 31 60 63 6 6 95
Tennessee 91 345 50 293 42 52 8 690
Texas 91 1,241 52 946 40 200 8 2,387
Utah 89 87 55 50 32 20 13 157
Vermont 90 20 39 29 57 2 4 51
Virginia 84 255 46 296 53 6 1 557
Washington 93 186 56 109 33 39 12 334
West Virginia 91 94 47 72 36 33 17 199
Wisconsin 89 204 48 158 38 59 14 421
Wyoming 86 33 40 43 52 7 8 83
U.S. total 90 11,023 48 9,869 43 1,999 9 22,891


Rural versus urban

Nationwide, 45 percent of motor vehicle crash deaths in 2018 occurred in rural areas. The states with the highest percentage of crash deaths on rural roads were South Dakota (90 percent), Vermont (88 percent), and North Dakota (87 percent). The states with the lowest percentage were New Jersey (8 percent) Massachusetts (10 percent), and Connecticut (13 percent). The District of Columbia had 0 crash deaths in rural areas because its entirety is coded as an urban area.
























































Number and percent of motor vehicle crash deaths by land use and state, 2018
State Urban Rural Unknown Total
Number % Number % Number % Number
Alabama 412 43 541 57 0 0 953
Alaska 39 49 41 51 0 0 80
Arizona 680 67 318 31 12 1 1,010
Arkansas 210 41 306 59 0 0 516
California 2,490 70 1,072 30 1 <1 3,563
Colorado 373 59 259 41 0 0 632
Connecticut 252 86 39 13 3 1 294
Delaware 57 51 54 49 0 0 111
District of Columbia 31 100 0 0 0 0 31
Florida 1,860 59 724 23 549 18 3,133
Georgia 996 66 508 34 0 0 1,504
Hawaii 91 78 26 22 0 0 117
Idaho 63 27 168 73 0 0 231
Illinois 645 63 386 37 0 0 1,031
Indiana 333 39 524 61 1 <1 858
Iowa 64 20 254 80 0 0 318
Kansas 95 24 308 76 1 <1 404
Kentucky 208 29 515 71 1 <1 724
Louisiana 463 60 304 40 1 <1 768
Maine 19 14 117 85 1 1 137
Maryland 403 80 90 18 8 2 501
Massachusetts 323 90 36 10 1 <1 360
Michigan 566 58 407 42 1 <1 974
Minnesota 160 42 218 57 3 1 381
Mississippi 224 34 440 66 0 0 664
Missouri 409 44 512 56 0 0 921
Montana 28 15 154 85 0 0 182
Nebraska 59 26 171 74 0 0 230
Nevada 239 72 89 27 2 1 330
New Hampshire 69 47 78 53 0 0 147
New Jersey 509 90 45 8 10 2 564
New Mexico 158 40 231 59 2 1 391
New York 477 51 466 49 0 0 943
North Carolina 593 41 843 59 1 <1 1,437
North Dakota 14 13 91 87 0 0 105
Ohio 580 54 471 44 17 2 1,068
Oklahoma 225 34 429 65 1 <1 655
Oregon 178 35 328 65 0 0 506
Pennsylvania 660 55 524 44 6 1 1,190
Rhode Island 43 73 15 25 1 2 59
South Carolina 356 34 681 66 0 0 1,037
South Dakota 13 10 117 90 0 0 130
Tennessee 570 55 471 45 0 0 1,041
Texas 2,110 58 1,520 42 12 <1 3,642
Utah 165 63 93 36 2 1 260
Vermont 7 10 60 88 1 1 68
Virginia 346 42 471 57 3 <1 820
Washington 305 56 235 43 6 1 546
West Virginia 116 39 178 61 0 0 294
Wisconsin 199 34 386 66 3 1 588
Wyoming 14 13 96 86 1 1 111
U.S. total 19,499 53 16,410 45 651 2 36,560


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