September 17, 2021
11 11 11 AM
California homeless camp fire damages 2 bridges, disrupts public transportation
Austin finishes half of its bicycle network, expects to complete entire 400-mile system by 2025
The Top 10 Automotive Concepts that automotive enthusiasts will be itching to see on the road!
Oregon Transportation Commission, wary of I-5 Rose Quarter project’s growing price tag, grants conditional approval
Woman dies after being hit by car in North Windham Friday night
Silk-FAW Continues To Poach Italy’s Automotive Talent, As Lamborghini’s Katia Bassi Joins As Managing Director
Transportation Department cracks down on airlines withholding refunds for canceled flights
Bear gets trapped in car, destroys interior
Cycling apparel company adding full-service bike repair to visitor center
German sales plunge in August to lowest level since 1992
Latest Post
California homeless camp fire damages 2 bridges, disrupts public transportation Austin finishes half of its bicycle network, expects to complete entire 400-mile system by 2025 The Top 10 Automotive Concepts that automotive enthusiasts will be itching to see on the road! Oregon Transportation Commission, wary of I-5 Rose Quarter project’s growing price tag, grants conditional approval Woman dies after being hit by car in North Windham Friday night Silk-FAW Continues To Poach Italy’s Automotive Talent, As Lamborghini’s Katia Bassi Joins As Managing Director Transportation Department cracks down on airlines withholding refunds for canceled flights Bear gets trapped in car, destroys interior Cycling apparel company adding full-service bike repair to visitor center German sales plunge in August to lowest level since 1992

Annual Cost to Own, Drive a New Vehicle Inches Closer to $10,000

Justin SullivanGetty Images

  • There are plenty of hidden costs involved in buying and driving a new vehicle, from depreciation to maintenance. If you add them all up, the national average cost hit $9666 this year, according to AAA. (Find out your own cost with AAA’s interactive tool.)
  • Different vehicle segments stand out in different ways, with electric vehicles having low per-mile charges but high depreciation, while half-ton pickups have the highest overall driving costs.
  • Changes in methodology mean it’s not easy to directly compare annual average costs through the years, but AAA does point out that when it did its first Your Driving Costs study, in 1950, gas was 27 cents a gallon and the average car cost nine cents a mile to run.

    Calculating out the exact dollar amount someone pays for transportation each year can be futile. Each person has their own situation, and some people pay more for track tires each year than others pay for 12 months of bus tickets. Still, there’s something to be learned from general trends—like the fact that the overall average cost to own and operate a new car in 2021 was $9666.

    That’s the headline number from the American Automobile Association’s (AAA) latest “Your Driving Costs” study, which is the group’s annual attempt to figure out how much Americans spend buying and driving their cars. Using a proprietary formula, AAA has been figuring out what it costs the average driver to operate their car through these studies since 1950 and, while the methodology has been adjusted through the years, the mission remains the same: take the most popular models on the market and “[break] down the cost of owning a new car including depreciation, finance, fuel, insurance, license/registration/ taxes and maintenance/repair/tires.”

    Depreciation is listed first there, and that might be because that is unsurprisingly where new cars end up costing owners the most money. For 2021, new cars cost their owners $3,900 in annual lost value, based on the difference between the purchase price and its estimated trade-in value after five years. Insurance was another $1342 a year, while financing adds $712. Taxes and fees came to $669, and then there are the running costs of 10.7 cents a mile for fuel and 9.6 cents a mile for maintenance, repair, and tires. AAA’s “average” costs are based on driving 15,000 miles a year.

    While these average costs are interesting, differences between vehicle types and powertrains mean certain figures will stand out depending on which vehicle category you’re looking at. For example, electric vehicles have lower per-mile fuel and maintenance costs, but they suffer from high depreciation rates (which can make buying a used EV tempting for those interested in such a vehicle). The vehicle segment with the highest overall driving costs is half-ton pickups, which cost an average of 77.3 cents per mile. The lowest? Small sedans, at only 48.2 cents per mile. Subcompact SUVs benefit from low depreciation rates, but medium SUVs are the segment that is


    The Afghan minister who became a bicycle courier in Germany | Asia News

    Sayed Sadaat’s story has gained particular prominence with the chaos unfolding at home.

    Sayed Sadaat used to be communications minister in the Afghan government before moving to Germany last December in the hope of a better future.

    Now he is a delivery man in the eastern city of Leipzig.

    He said some at home criticised him for taking such a job after having served in the government for two years, leaving office in 2018. But for him now, a job is a job.

    “I have nothing to feel guilty about,” the 49-year-old British-Afghan dual citizen said, standing in his orange uniform next to his bike.

    He had quit the Afghan government because of disagreements with members of the president’s circle, he said.

    “I hope other politicians also follow the same path, working with the public rather than just hiding.”

    His story has gained particular prominence with the chaos unfolding at home after the Taliban takeover.

    His family and friends also want to leave – hoping to join the thousands of others on evacuation flights or trying to find other routes out.

    With the withdrawal of US troops on the horizon, the number of Afghan asylum seekers in Germany has risen since the beginning of the year, jumping by more than 130 percent, data from the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees showed.

    Even though his dual citizenship meant he could have chosen to move to the United Kingdom, where he had spent much of his life, he relocated to Germany at the end of 2020, seizing his last opportunity to do so before that path was closed by Britain’s exit from the European Union.

    He chose Germany because he expected it to have a better economic future and a leading role in the telecom and IT sectors in the long term.

    But even with his background, Sadaat has struggled to find a job in Germany that matched his experience.

    With degrees in IT and telecommunications, Sadaat had hoped to find work in a related field. But with no German, his chances were slim.

    “The language is the most important part,” said Sadaat.

    Every day he does four hours of German at a language school before starting a six-hour evening shift delivering meals for Lieferando, where he started this summer.

    “The first few days were exciting but difficult,” he said, describing the challenge of learning to cycle in the city traffic.

    “The more you go out and the more you see people, the more you learn,” he said.


    Nissan eyes U.S. options for Nismo

    “When we look at the U.S. market and what our competitors are doing there, I think there is a possibility [for Nismo] in the crossover and truck segments going forward,” Katagiri said at the unveiling this month of the Note Aura Nismo, a “Formula-E-inspired” revamp of the pedestrian Note Aura.

    The Note Aura Nismo, which goes on sale this fall, adds to a domestic Nismo lineup that is made up of versions of the GT-R, Fairlady Z, Leaf electric vehicle and March compact.

    In the U.S., by contrast, Nissan sells only the GT-R Nismo, having sold out of the 370Z Nismo ahead of the full redesign landing next spring. It’s a good bet that the next-gen Z will also get a Nismo treatment.

    Nismo has made halting headway on its ambition to become a global heavyweight performance subbrand compared with the recognition of such rivals as Mercedes’ AMG, Subaru’s STI or Hyundai’s N lines.

    In 2017, Katagiri announced plans to double the number of Nissan nameplates that get the Nismo treatment and to deliver a near sevenfold increase in sales in five years. The lofty goal was to lift global Nismo deliveries to 100,000 vehicles in the early 2020s, from some 15,000 in 2016.

    Nissan now declines to even give sales figures for Nismo.

    In the U.S., Nissan has experimented with Nismo versions of the Juke subcompact crossover and the Sentra sedan. And this spring, in the Middle East, Nissan launched the Patrol Nismo SUV. That package could foreshadow how Nissan handles future light trucks for the U.S.

    But any meaningful North American expansion of Nismo could be some time coming. Katagiri didn’t offer a timeline but said racing and marketing activities will fill the gap in the meantime.

    “Nismo is a global brand. But when it comes to its actual business, Nismo heavily relies on Japan at the moment,” Katagiri said. “In overseas markets, the U.S. and Europe included, the so-called globalization of Nismo is something we are going to do from now on.”

    Naoto Okamura contributed to this report.


    Tesla vehicle on autopilot crashes into Florida cop cruiser

    A Tesla vehicle operating on autopilot slammed into a Florida police cruiser on a highway near Orlando on Saturday, just days after CEO Elon Musk admitted faults with the experimental self-driving software amid a federal investigation into the system.

    The crash happened just before 5 a.m. on Saturday when the trooper had activated his cruiser’s emergency lights on the way to help a disabled vehicle.

    The Tesla hit the cruiser on its left side and then collided with the disabled vehicle, highway patrol spokeswoman Lt. Kim Montes told the Orlando Sentinel.

    The 27-year-old Tesla “driver” and disabled vehicle driver suffered minor injuries as a result of the crash, according to the report. The state trooper was unhurt.

    An email to Tesla seeking comment was not immediately returned.

    Earlier this month, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration announced a formal investigation into Tesla’s autopilot system after a series of crashes with parked emergency vehicles.

    Two drivers received minor injuries following the collisions between the Tesla vehicle and the police cruiser and disabled car in Florida.
    Getty Images

    The agency said it had identified 11 crashes since 2018 in which Teslas on Autopilot or Traffic Aware Cruise Control have hit vehicles with flashing lights, flares, an illuminated arrow board or cones warning of hazards.

    The investigation covers 765,000 vehicles — or nearly every car that Tesla has sold in the US since the start of the 2014 model year, including the Models Y, X, S and 3, the agency said.

    Tesla CEO Elon Musk
    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is formally investigating Elon Musk’s Tesla vehicles after reported crashes.
    ddp/Pool dpa/Sipa USA
    Tesla CEO Elon Musk
    Tesla CEO Elon Musk says his “Autopilot/AI team is rallying” to develop more accurate software for autonomous driving.
    Getty Images

    On Monday, Musk acknowledged issues with the company’s latest auto-pilot technology.

    “FSD Beta 9.2 is actually not great [in my opinion], but Autopilot/AI team is rallying to improve as fast as possible. We’re trying to have a single stack for both highway & city streets, but it requires massive NN retraining,” Musk said in a tweet.


    Lack of transportation options a problem for many in rural America

    HIGHLAND COUNTY, Va. (InvestigateTV) – Robert “Wes” Maupin is a lifeline for the elderly residents in this rural, Appalachian community.

    For nearly eight years, Maupin, has climbed into the driver’s seat of the county’s senior transportation van and driven residents through the twisty, steep mountains to doctor appointments.

    Without that van and the kindness of Maupin, many elderly residents wouldn’t have access to needed medical care.

    Heavily involved in community activities and supporting his friends and family, Robert “Wes” Maupin drove Highland County, Virginia to hour-long visits to nearby counties five days a week. Maupin finds fulfillment in being able to provide this help although the county lacks real access to transportation.(Courtesy of Wes Maupin)

    “Community service is a passion, no matter what it is. When I see a need, I always try to step up and fill the need because I have the time and I have the energy,” Maupin said.

    The lack of transportation – either owning a vehicle or having access to a bus or ride-share service such as Uber – plagues many parts of rural America.

    Hospitals, primary care doctors, urgent care clinics, grocery stores and employment opportunities often are miles and miles away from the residents who live there.

    Nationally, an estimated 91% of households in the U.S. owned at least one vehicle in 2017, federal data shows.

    But ownership rates are much lower in the Appalachian and Mississippi Delta regions. About 20% of the 662 counties in these regions have household vehicle ownership rates below the national average, according to InvestigateTV’s analysis.

    “It makes it harder for citizens to maintain the kind of commitment to health care and health improvement in their individual lives when they have a real challenge getting in to see health care providers that are helping them do that,” said Guy Land, congressional liaison at the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), a federal agency that helps promote economic stability in the region that stretches from New York to Mississippi.

    Limited transportation options

    Since 66-year-old Maupin began driving seniors in Highland County, Virginia, he has noticed the increasing need for public transportation in the community.

    “It’s growing, we are an aging community. We have a disproportionate number of seniors, a number of people retire out here,” Maupin said. “We’re very volunteer driven out here.”

    Maupin is the only paid driver for the Valley Program for Aging Services that provides transportation for adults 60 years and older or those with a disability of any age who can no longer drive.

    The program also relies on a handful of volunteer drivers to fill the gaps.

    The van service costs $10 for a ride to medical appointments and $5 for a trip to the grocery store, which is about an hour away in the town of Staunton, Virginia.

    InvestigateTV found that in Highland County it also takes 55 minutes to drive to the nearest urgent care. If there was access to Uber in the county, a trip to the clinic and back home could


    The 21 Best Cars of the San Marino Motor Classic

    Only one week after Pebble Beach, more than a dozen entries from that storied show made their way down the coast to the San Marino Motor Classic on the big lawn of Lacy Park in tony San Marino, California, a Los Angeles suburb that was old money when Beverly Hills was still farmland. In addition to the Pebble cars, this was one of the most diverse collections of classic cars at any car show anywhere, 480 of them total, spread out like a giant automotive floral arrangement on Lacy Park’s three-plus acres.

    The Ferrari Club of America SW Region held their annual Concorso smack dab in the middle of the lawn, with collector David Lee once again anchoring the east end of the field with five of his favorite cars from his formidable collection. The giant American classics held down the lawn’s west end as part of a judged show put on by the AACA, Antique Automobile Club of America. Around all that was everything from Porsches to Pontiacs in one of the most diverse shows in the country.

    “It’s super-sized,” said the Motor Classic’s chairman Aaron Weiss. “It is amazing. 480 cars signed up, the gala last night had a record 550 people, the VIP tent today is 600, everything is, like, blown up and everybody seems to be having a good time. We’ve got great cars, as usual. It’s pretty amazing. Every year it blows my mind. It gets better and better.”

    For comparison, the first year of the Motor Classic there were about 250 cars.

    “It’s going a lot smoother,” said Weiss. “We figured it out. It took us nine years, but we figured it out. Everything’s really good.”
    Before this year’s show even started, the Classic had raised more than $2.3 million for the charities it supports: the Pasadena Humane Society, Cancer Support Community Pasadena, and the San Marino Rotary Charities. The show looks to add another $350,000 to that, maybe more.

    “The more people come in, the more we’re making,” Weiss said.

    Previous shows had been held in June.

    “We went with this week intentionally,” Weiss said. “We wanted to be the week after Pebble Beach because there’s a fair number of our entries that show at Pebble and the cost of transportation from Pebble here is much less than the cost of having to go back to the East Coast and then back here. So this really worked out well.”

    Weiss estimated that there were 12 to 18 cars from Pebble on the lawn this year, including Mark Hyman’s 1937 Delahaye Torpedo Cabriolet, which has quite a story: It was hidden from the Nazis during WWII, then from the Russians during the Cold War. Restorer Jacques Harguindeguy bought it in pieces in 1998, restored it, and it won Best of Show at Pebble in 2000.

    Past shows held in June always coincided with the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Ironically, this year’s show did, too. The idea of following on with the previous week’s


    Electric bikes are still selling like crazy, and that might even increase soon

    Electric bicycle sales have been increasing around the world for years, with the US seeing particularly drastic year-over-year growth. But never before have we witnessed the kind of colossal growth spawned by the COVID-19 pandemic. And according to industry leaders, there’s no sign of it slowing down.

    When the pandemic first hit hard in the US around 18 months ago, most in the industry assumed it would be rough waters ahead.

    The truth turned out to be the exact opposite, at least in terms of sales. The numbers absolutely soared as electric bicycles flew off the shelves across the country and around the world.

    Of course, it wasn’t all smooth sailing. New problems emerged in the industry due to the rapid growth. But the high sales figures have continued, and there is no expectation of returning to lower pre-pandemic sales levels.

    As electric bicycle company Pedego’s CEO Don DiCostanzo explained to Yahoo Finance:

    “Let’s face it — everything electric is just hot, whether it be cars, now planes, trains. Electric bikes are probably the fastest-growing segment of any of these categories because they’re affordable for everybody.”

    With so many models of electric bicycles available across the board, many of which fall in the key sub-$1,000 category, Americans have been scooping up e-bikes in droves.

    Pedego even rolled out its lowest-priced electric bike to date in the middle of the pandemic (see my review video below). That helped the company reach a new demographic of riders and compete more directly with industry leaders like Rad Power Bikes, which currently dominates the $1,000-$2,000 category.

    Many popular electric bikes still cost north of two grand, with some priced considerably higher.

    A new bill introduced in the US House of Representatives and a companion bill in the US Senate are currently seeking to help Americans lower those prices with an e-bike tax credit similar to the electric vehicle tax credit.

    The plan would create a 30% rebate towards the purchase of a new electric bicycle in the US. There are still a few limitations, such as capping the rebate at $1,500 and the qualifying price of the e-bike at $8,000. But if the legislation passes, it could open the door to a second larger wave of electric bicycle sales in the US.

    That couldn’t come sooner for many commuters, who are now weighing their options for socially distant commuting between private cars that are expensive and time-consuming for commutes or crowded public transportation.

    Electric bicycles have proven to be an excellent alternative for many of these commuters by providing a cheaper, faster and healthier alternative form of transportation.

    And if the last 18 months are any indication, many more commuters are likely to discover those benefits soon as the modal shift we are seeing continues to change urban and suburban transportation before our eyes.

    FTC: We use income earning auto affiliate links. More.

    Subscribe to Electrek on YouTube for exclusive videos and subscribe to the podcast.


    Woman had four children in car as she fled from trooper

    State Patrol: Woman had four children in car as she fled from trooper

    Troopers say woman had children in car when chase ended in southwest Omaha

    The Nebraska State Patrol said a woman with four children in her car fled from an attempted traffic stop on Interstate 80 in Omaha Sunday evening. The woman was wanted for fleeing from another attempted traffic stop by Sarpy County deputies.A trooper performed a tactical vehicle intervention on the woman’s vehicle near 119th and West Center Road Sunday around 8:00 p.m. and brought her Chevy Malibu to a stop. The driver, Tiara Cook, 32, was taken into custody without incident or injury. Four children in the car were not injured. The children were placed with family members.Cook was arrested for felony flight to avoid arrest, willful reckless driving, child abuse/neglect no operator’s license and false reporting.Earlier Sunday in a separate case, troopers and Omaha police arrested a motorcyclist seen speeding, driving between vehicles and passing on the shoulder of Interstate 680 near West Dodge. An NSP pilot tracked the motorcycle to 129th and Q, where the rider fled on foot. Troopers and police arrested Lenn Farley, 32 of Papillion. He also faces a felony charge of flight to avoid arrest, as well as willful reckless driving.AUGUST 23, 2021 (OMAHA, NEB.) — Troopers with the Nebraska State Patrol (NSP) have arrested multiple people following multiple pursuits Sunday evening.At approximately 5:50 p.m. Sunday, a trooper observed a motorcycle driving recklessly on Interstate 680 near Dodge Street. The motorcycle was speeding, splitting between other vehicles, and passing on the shoulder. The trooper attempted a traffic stop, but the motorcycle fled. The trooper initiated a pursuit but discontinued the pursuit shortly thereafter as the NSP Aviation Support Division began tracking the motorcycle from the air.NSP pilots tracked the motorcycle as it continued driving recklessly through portions of west Omaha until it came to an apartment complex near 129th and Q streets. Pilots directed patrol units to that location, where the rider then fled on foot. Troopers and Omaha Police Officers were able to apprehend the subject after a short foot pursuit. The rider, Lenn Farley, 32, of Papillion, was arrested for felony flight to avoid arrest, willful reckless driving, and an outstanding warrant from Hall County. He was lodged in Douglas County Jail.Later, at approximately 7:45 p.m. Sunday, a trooper located a vehicle that had previously fled a traffic stop with the Sarpy County Sheriff’s Office. The trooper attempted a traffic stop in a parking lot near the 84th Street interchange of Interstate 80. The vehicle, a Chevrolet Malibu, refused to stop and fled westbound on Interstate 80. The trooper initiated a pursuit.The vehicle turned northbound onto Interstate 680, then westbound on West Center Road. Near 119th and Center, the trooper was able to successfully perform a tactical vehicle intervention to bring the vehicle to a stop. The driver was then taken into custody without incident. Troopers then discovered four children


    Ohio now has the most U.S. Bicycle Route miles in America (maps)

    CLEVELAND, Ohio — Imagine starting a bike ride on the Towpath Trail and pedaling all the way to Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C. or even Atlanta.

    A new frontier is opening for bike travel. A growing network of designated routes is being pieced together across the nation along low-traffic roads, trails and bike lanes by the same association that designates Interstate highway numbers. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) established the US Bicycle Route System in 1978. However, it’s only recently begun to take shape.

    There’s more than 17,000 miles of U.S. Bicycle Routes across the country. Ohio boasts 1,523 miles, more than any state in the nation.

    In the age of the automobile, road trips have thrilled millions of travelers with the allure of the open highway. As roads become more open to bikes and as trails expand, that sense of adventure is giving rise to a new kind of tourism. For people willing to spend multiple days on their bike, trail trips may become the new road trip.

    National Corridor Plan by AASHTO and Adventure Cycling Association, shown with emphasis on Ohio.

    If a person needs to drive from Columbus to Dayton, they can look on a map to find I-70 and follow signs along their trip. Similarly, a cyclist can find U.S. Bicycle Route 50 on the map and follow signs along the route to connect the two cities.

    The Adventure Cycling Association describes U.S. Bicycle Routes as signed roads and trails that direct cyclists to a preferred route through a city, county or state.

    Over the past decade, the number of U.S. Bicycle Routes has grown exponentially. There are now over 17,000 miles designated across the country. Ohio has 1,523 miles, more than any state in the country.

    This month, 1,177 miles of new U.S. Bicycle Route were designated in Ohio. To put that into perspective, Jennifer Hamelman, USBRS Coordinator and Safety Liaison for the Adventure Cycling Association, noted “this has not happened since 2011 when Alaska designated 1,414 miles.”

    1) U.S. Bicycle Route 21 North — Cleveland to Cincinnati

    Mileage: 314

    Major trails included: Ohio to Erie Trail and the Ohio & Erie Canal Towpath Trail

    Future expansion: Plans are for USBR 21 to connect Cleveland and Atlanta.

    Within state boundaries, USBR 21 follows the Ohio to Erie Trail and connects the big three Ohio cities of Cincinnati, Columbus and Cleveland. Incredibly, over 70 percent of this route involves off-street trails. An absolute must for Ohio cyclists to experience.

    2) U.S. Bicycle Route 21 South — Cincinnati to Aberdeen

    Mileage: 52

    Major trails included: Ohio River Trail

    This route is a southern extension of the Ohio to Erie Trail (US Bicycle Route 21 North). It follows the Ohio River for over 50 miles and ends in the village of Aberdeen near the Kentucky border.

    3) US Bicycle Route 25 North — Toledo to Cincinnati

    Mileage: 255

    Major trails included: Little Miami Scenic Trail, Great Miami River Trail

    Future expansion: The route is planned


    GM, AT&T to offer in-car 5G connectivity

    General Motors and AT&T have partnered to equip GM vehicles with 5G cellular connectivity, starting with the 2024 model year.

    The capability, enhanced from the current 4G LTE offering, will improve roadway coverage, speed up music and video downloads, make over-the-air updates faster and more secure and speed up navigation, mapping and voice services, AT&T and GM said in a joint statement Thursday.

    The 5G network is run on a smarter and safer platform than 4G LTE, AT&T said, and the collaboration, which also includes Microsoft services, will begin to establish the foundation for enhanced autonomous-driving technology, the companies said.

    The 5G connectivity will launch on 2024 model-year vehicles. Previous model years will be able to upgrade to 5G via an over-the-air update, GM said.

    “As an in-vehicle connectivity leader, this rollout demonstrates our commitment to growth through software-enabled services and reimagining every customer touch point by enabling faster connectivity speeds to power in-vehicle voice-enabled services, navigation and apps that our customers have grown to love,” Santiago Chamorro, GM vice president of global connected services, said in the statement.

    Since the in-vehicle launch of AT&T’s 4G LTE in 2014, GM customers have used more than 171 million gigabytes of data, which is equivalent to nearly 5.7 billion hours of music streaming or more than 716 million hours of video streaming.

    Other companies have added 5G to vehicles, which allows customers to download more data faster than 4G LTE, said Mike Ramsey, a senior analyst at Gartner.

    “The biggest part of this is GM’s commitment to put it across their entire lineup,” he said.

    The 5G network, along with Microsoft’s cloud services, will serve as a strong base as GM advances its technology, such as the Super Cruise hands-free driver-assist system and Vehicle Intelligence Platform.

    It will also provide broader scale for future mobility services, such as e-commerce, the companies said.

    “By connecting millions of GM vehicles to our nationwide 5G network, we will improve the customer experience for existing services while laying the groundwork for the next wave of innovation including autonomous driving,” Gregory Wieboldt, senior vice president of global business, industry solutions at AT&T, said in the statement. “We now connect more vehicles than any other carrier, and GM has played a critical role in our success.”

    Ford made a similar move in 2019, planning to equip its lineup with 5G modems by 2022 to supplement driver-assist systems.